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Unformatted text preview: 9/12/11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) I Main Topics A Angles between lines and planes B Fold axes of cylindrical folds C Equal
angle and equal
area projecOons D Appendices 9/12/11 GG303 1 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) II Angles between lines and planes A Angle between lines 1 The acute angle between the lines 2 Measured in the plane (great circle) containing the lines. 3 Measured along the cyclographic trace of the unique great circle represenOng the plane containing the two lines. 4 Can be found using the dot product or cross product of the poles B The angle between two planes 1 The acute angle between the planes (or the poles to the planes) 2 Measured in the plane (great circle) perpendicular to the intersecOon of the planes 3 Measured along the cyclographic trace of the unique great circle represenOng the plane containing the poles to the two planes. 4 Can be found using the dot product or cross product of the poles 9/12/11 GG303 2 1 9/12/11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) III Fold axes of cylindrical folds A Cylindrical fold 1 A folded surface 2 A surface that can be swept out by a line moving parallel to itself 3 A “two
dimensional” fold B Fold axis 1 The direcOon of a line parallel to a cylindrical fold 2 The direcOon of the intersecOon of planes tangent to a cylindrical fold 3 The direcOon of the cross product of normals to bedding (not shown here) 9/12/11 GG303 3 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) III Fold axes of cylindrical folds B β diagram 1
Fold axis is along the line of intersecOon of planes tangent to bedding 2
Direct method C π diagram 1
Fold axis is perpendicular to the plane containing the poles to beds 2
Preferred over β diagram if many beds are considered 3
For two poles, the π diagram is akin to ﬁnding the cross product between the bedding plane poles. 4
Can be extended to many poles 9/12/11 GG303 4 2 9/12/11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) IV Types of spherical projecOons A Equal angle projecOon 1 Shapes of plane shapes on the surface of the sphere are preserved, but their relaOve areas are altered. 2 The angles between planes equals the angle between their cyclographic traces 3 Plo`ed by hand with a Wulﬀ net (see next page) B Equal area projecOon 1 The relaOve areas of plane shapes on the surface of the sphere are preserved, but their shapes are altered. 2 Good for represenOng the density of poles 3 Plo`ed by hand with a Schmidt net (see next page) 9/12/11 GG303 5 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) Wulﬀ net Schmidt net From h`p://en.wikipedia.org 9/12/11 GG303 6 3 9/12/11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) (From Hobbs, Means, and Williams, 1976, An Outline of Structural Geology) Property
Net type Equal angle projection Equal area projection Wulff net Schmidt net Projection
preserves ...
Projection does not
preserve ...
A line projects as a ... Angles Areas Areas Angles Point Point Great circle projection Circle Fourthorder quadric Small circle projection Circle Fourthorder quadric Distance from center of primitive circle to
cyclographic trace measured in direction of
dip
Distance from center of primitive circle to
pole of plane measured in the direction
opposite to that of the dip
Distance from center of primitive circle to
point that represents a plunging line
Favored use
9/12/11 ⎛ π dip ⎞
R tan ⎜ −
⎟
⎝4
2⎠ ⎛ π dip ⎞
R 2 sin ⎜ −
⎟
⎝4
2⎠ ⎛ dip ⎞
R tan ⎜
⎟
⎝2⎠ ⎛ dip ⎞
R 2 sin ⎜
⎟
⎝2⎠ ⎛ π plunge ⎞
R tan ⎜ −
⎟
⎝4
2⎠ ⎛ π plunge ⎞
R 2 sin ⎜ −
⎟
⎝4
2⎠ Measuring angular relations Contouring orientation data GG303 7 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) V Appendices A Computer programs for spherical projecOons (free) B Stereographic projecOon of a circle C Stereographic projecOon of points on the upper hemisphere 9/12/11 GG303 8 4 9/12/11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) A Computer programs for spherical projecOons (free) 1 S.J. Martel’s Matlab script for stereographic projecOons (stereonet.m) 2 1 S.J. Martel’s Matlab script for Wullf nets
(wulﬀ4.m) 3 "Stereonet" by R. Allmendinger at Cornell University (for the Mac) 9/12/11 GG303 9 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) 9/12/11 GG303 10 5 9/12/11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) 9/12/11 GG303 11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) 9/12/11 GG303 12 6 ...
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 Fall '11
 StephenMartel

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