Lec.09.pptx - 9/12/11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) ...

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Unformatted text preview: 9/12/11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) I Main Topics A Angles between lines and planes B Fold axes of cylindrical folds C Equal ­angle and equal ­ area projecOons D Appendices 9/12/11 GG303 1 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) II Angles between lines and planes A Angle between lines 1 The acute angle between the lines 2 Measured in the plane (great circle) containing the lines. 3 Measured along the cyclographic trace of the unique great circle represenOng the plane containing the two lines. 4 Can be found using the dot product or cross product of the poles B The angle between two planes 1  The acute angle between the planes (or the poles to the planes) 2  Measured in the plane (great circle) perpendicular to the intersecOon of the planes 3  Measured along the cyclographic trace of the unique great circle represenOng the plane containing the poles to the two planes. 4  Can be found using the dot product or cross product of the poles 9/12/11 GG303 2 1 9/12/11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) III Fold axes of cylindrical folds A Cylindrical fold 1  A folded surface 2  A surface that can be swept out by a line moving parallel to itself 3  A “two ­dimensional” fold B Fold axis 1  The direcOon of a line parallel to a cylindrical fold 2  The direcOon of the intersecOon of planes tangent to a cylindrical fold 3  The direcOon of the cross product of normals to bedding (not shown here) 9/12/11 GG303 3 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) III Fold axes of cylindrical folds B β diagram 1  Fold axis is along the line of intersecOon of planes tangent to bedding 2  Direct method C π diagram 1  Fold axis is perpendicular to the plane containing the poles to beds 2  Preferred over β diagram if many beds are considered 3  For two poles, the π diagram is akin to finding the cross product between the bedding plane poles. 4  Can be extended to many poles 9/12/11 GG303 4 2 9/12/11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) IV Types of spherical projecOons A Equal angle projecOon 1  Shapes of plane shapes on the surface of the sphere are preserved, but their relaOve areas are altered. 2  The angles between planes equals the angle between their cyclographic traces 3 Plo`ed by hand with a Wulff net (see next page) B Equal area projecOon 1  The relaOve areas of plane shapes on the surface of the sphere are preserved, but their shapes are altered. 2  Good for represenOng the density of poles 3  Plo`ed by hand with a Schmidt net (see next page) 9/12/11 GG303 5 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) Wulff net Schmidt net From h`p://en.wikipedia.org 9/12/11 GG303 6 3 9/12/11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) (From Hobbs, Means, and Williams, 1976, An Outline of Structural Geology) Property Net type Equal angle projection Equal area projection Wulff net Schmidt net Projection preserves ... Projection does not preserve ... A line projects as a ... Angles Areas Areas Angles Point Point Great circle projection Circle Fourth-order quadric Small circle projection Circle Fourth-order quadric Distance from center of primitive circle to cyclographic trace measured in direction of dip Distance from center of primitive circle to pole of plane measured in the direction opposite to that of the dip Distance from center of primitive circle to point that represents a plunging line Favored use 9/12/11 ⎛ π dip ⎞ R tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝4 2⎠ ⎛ π dip ⎞ R 2 sin ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝4 2⎠ ⎛ dip ⎞ R tan ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎛ dip ⎞ R 2 sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎛ π plunge ⎞ R tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝4 2⎠ ⎛ π plunge ⎞ R 2 sin ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝4 2⎠ Measuring angular relations Contouring orientation data GG303 7 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) V Appendices A Computer programs for spherical projecOons (free) B Stereographic projecOon of a circle C Stereographic projecOon of points on the upper hemisphere 9/12/11 GG303 8 4 9/12/11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) A Computer programs for spherical projecOons (free) 1  S.J. Martel’s Matlab script for stereographic projecOons (stereonet.m) 2  1 S.J. Martel’s Matlab script for Wullf nets (wulff4.m) 3 "Stereonet" by R. Allmendinger at Cornell University (for the Mac) 9/12/11 GG303 9 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) 9/12/11 GG303 10 5 9/12/11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) 9/12/11 GG303 11 9. SPHERICAL PROJECTIONS (II) 9/12/11 GG303 12 6 ...
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