Lec.17.pptx - 10/16/11 17. Mohr Circle for Trac4ons I...

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Unformatted text preview: 10/16/11 17. Mohr Circle for Trac4ons I Main Topics A Stresses vs. trac4ons B Mohr circle for trac4ons C Example 10/16/11 GG303 1 17. Mohr Circle for Trac4ons •  From King et al., 1994 (Fig. 11) •  Coulomb stress change caused by the Landers rupture. The leP ­lateral ML=6.5 Big Bear rupture occurred along doTed line 3 hr 26 min aPer the Landers main shock. The Coulomb stress increase at the future Big Bear epicenter is 2.2 ­2.9 bars. 10/16/11 hTp://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/modeling/papers/landers.php GG303 2 1 10/16/11 17. Mohr Circle for Trac4ons II Stresses vs. trac4ons A Similari4es between stresses and trac4ons 1 Same dimensions (force per unit area) 2 The normal stress ac4ng on a plane matches the normal trac4on 10/16/11 Note the use of double subscripts here on the trac4ons; This unconven4onal GG303 3 17. Mohr Circle for Trac4ons II Stresses vs. trac4ons (cont.) B Differences between stresses and trac4ons 1 Stresses are tensor quan44es and trac4ons are vectors. 2 The stress state is defined at a point using a fixed reference frame, whereas a trac4on is defined on a plane with a reference frame that floats with the plane. 3 Shear stress components on perpendicular planes have the same sign, whereas shear trac4ons on perpendicular planes have opposite signs. 10/16/11 GG303 4 2 10/16/11 17. Mohr Circle for Trac4ons III Mohr circle for trac4ons A τ n = σ 1 cos2 θ + σ 2 sin 2 θ B τ s = (σ 2 − σ 1 ) sin θ cosθ Now cos2 θ = (1 2 )1 + cos 2θ sin 2 θ = (1 2 ) (1 − cos 2θ ) sin θ cosθ = (1 2 ) ( sin 2θ ) C τ n = σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 1 − σ 2 cos 2θ 2 D τ s = 2 − (σ 1 − σ 2 ) sin 2θ 2 10/16/11 GG303 5 17. Mohr Circle for Trac4ons III Mohr circle for trac4ons C τ n = σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 1 − σ 2 cos 2θ 2 2 D τ s = − (σ 1 − σ 2 ) sin 2θ 2 σ1 + σ 2 Now c = 2 r= E τ n = c + r cos ( −2θ ) F τ s = r sin ( −2θ ) 10/16/11 σ1 − σ 2 2 Equa4ons of a Mohr circle for trac4ons Relate trac4ons on planes of different orienta4on c is mean normal stress (trac4on) r is maximum shear trac4on (the circle radius) σ1 is the most tensile stress σ2 is the most tensile stress GG303 6 3 10/16/11 17. Mohr Circle for Trac4ons III Mohr circle for trac4ons C τ n = σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 1 − σ 2 cos 2θ 2 2 D τ s = − (σ 1 − σ 2 ) sin 2θ Now 2 σ + σ2 c= 1 2 r= E τ n = c + r cos ( −2θ ) F τ s = r sin ( −2θ ) 10/16/11 σ1 − σ 2 2 Equa4ons of a Mohr circle for trac4ons Relate trac4ons on planes of different orienta4on c is mean normal stress (trac4on) r is maximum shear trac4on (the circle radius) σ1 is the most tensile stress σ2 is the most tensile stress GG303 7 17. Mohr Circle for Trac4ons  ­2θ =  ­90°  ­2θ =  ­180°  ­2θ = 0° G Key points 1 θ = θ1n is the angle between the normal to the plane σ1 acts on and the normal to the plane of interest 2 If posi4ve θ is counterclockwise in “physical space”,  ­2θ is clockwise in “Mohr circle space” 10/16/11 GG303 8 4 10/16/11 17. Mohr Circle for Trac4ons Example 1 using Mohr circle to find principal stresses •  Suppose σxx = +10 MPa (tension), σxy = +3 MPa (le: lateral shear), σyy = +2 MPa (tension), and σyx = +3 MPa (right lateral shear). A) Draw a box in a reference frame and clearly label the stresses on its sides; this is a criBcally important step. B) Determine the stresses and trac4ons on the faces of the box. Here, we use the tensor "on ­in" conven4on. 10/16/11 GG303 9 17. Mohr Circle for Trac4ons Note: In this example the most tensile stress is truly tensile, even though none of the stress components in the x,y frame were C D E F G H Plot and label the points on a set of labelled τn, τs axes. Draw the Mohr circle through the points by finding the center (c) and radius (r) of the circle. Label the principal magnitudes τ1 and τ2 (τ1 > τ2); they come from the intersec4on of the circle with the normal stress (τn) axis. Assign reference axes to the principal direc4ons; I chose x' for the τ1 ­direc4on. Label the nega4ve double angle between the trac4on pair that act on a plane with a known normal direc4on (here, x or y) and the trac4on pair that act on a plane with an unknown direc4on (e.g., x'). Draw and label a new reference frame and box showing the principal stresses, making sure to use the double angle rela4onship correctly. 10/16/11 GG303 10 5 ...
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