Myriad Observations Showing Phenomena Unknown to Aristotle In addition to the observations noted above, Galileo made many other observations that undermined the authority on which the Ptolemaic universe was built. Some of these included 1. Showing that the planets were disks, not points of light, as seen through the telescope. 2. Showing that the great "cloud" called the Milky Way (which we now know to be the disk of our spiral galaxy) was composed of enormous numbers of stars that had not been seen before. 3. Observing that the planet Saturn had "ears". We now know that Galileo was observing the rings of Saturn, but his telescope was not good enough to show them as more than extensions on either side of the planet. 4. Showing that the Moon was not smooth, as had been assumed, but was covered by mountains and craters. As each new wonder was observed, increasing doubt was cast on the prevailing notion that there was nothing new to be observed in the heavens because they were made from a perfect, unchanging substance. It also raised the credibility
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