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Vectors - quantities include the temperature your weight or...

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Vectors: Velocities, Accelerations, and Forces In order to understand the discoveries of Newton, we must have an understanding of three basic quantities: (1) velocity, (2) acceleration, and (3) force. In this section we define the first two, and in the next we shall introduce forces. These three quantities have a common feature: they are what mathematicians call vectors . Examples of Scalar Quantities Vectors are quantities that require not only a magnitude, but a direction to specify them completely. Let us illustrate by first citing some examples of quantities that are not vectors. The number of gallons of gasoline in the fuel tank of your car is an example of a quantitity that can be specified by a single number---it makes no sense to talk about a "direction" associated with the amount of gasoline in a tank. Such quantities, which can be specified by giving a single number (in appropriate units), are called scalars . Other examples of scalar
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Unformatted text preview: quantities include the temperature, your weight, or the population of a country; these are scalars because they are completely defined by a single number (with appropriate units). Examples of Vector Quantities However, consider a velocity. If we say that a car is going 70 km/hour, we have not completely specified its motion, because we have not specified the direction that it is going. Thus, velocity is an example of a vector quantity. A vector generally requires more than one number to specify it; in this example we could give the magnitude of the velocity (70km/hour), a compass heading to specify the direction (say 30 degrees from North), and an number giving the vertical angle with respect to the Earth's surface (zero degrees except in chase scenes from action movies!). The adjacent figure shows a typical coordinate system for specifying a vector in terms of a length r and two angles, theta and phi ....
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