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Diabetes insipidus - water reabsorption and increased...

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Diabetes insipidus Diabetes insipidus is a metabolic disorder that is characterised the bodies inability to concentrate urine. This will result in large quantities of dilute urine and dehydration. Symptoms Diabetes Insipidus clinically manifests with polydipsia, polyuria, and hypotonic urine (or clear urine). There is often significant nocturia. The patient may also complain of signs and symptoms of dehydration and hypernatremia, including: Dry eyes, skins, poor skin turgor, tachycardia, hypotension Restlessness, lethargy and muscle twitching Fatigue Note: there will be no signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia or diabetes mellitus Causes Diabetes Insipidus (DI) can be classified as either central or peripheral depending of its etiology. Both result in the reduction in the permeability of the collecting duct of the kidney to water (therefore reducing
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Unformatted text preview: water reabsorption and increased secretion) Central DI results from a deficiency of ADH, usually due to the decrease in its release from the posterior pituitary gland. This could be due to pituitary surgery or a craniopharyngioma. Other causes include, Post-traumatic head injury, intracranial infection, congenital malformation or pituitary stalk lesions. Peripheral DI (or nephrogenic DI) results from a renal insensitivity or resistance to ADH. This is most often due to long-term or chronic treatments with nephrogenic drugs, such as Lithium. Other drugs may include rifampin, colchicine, cisplatin and gentamicin, There is also a correlation with DI and pregnancy Epidemiology There is no clear epidemiological correlation between age, race and demographic groups....
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