Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - Chapter 8 The second law of thermodynamics...

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Chapter 8 The second law of thermodynamics -Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe Because……….Some of the energy is converted to kinetic energy, but most is lost as heat A system can only put heat to work when there is a temperature difference that results in the heat flowing from a warmer location to a cooler one Consequence of loss of usable energy -Makes the universe disordered Entropy- measure of disorder Ex: decay in an unmaintained building Spontaneous process Occurs without an input of energy Ex: water flows down hill Non spontaneous Does not occur on its own, needs energy added to the system For a process to occur spontaneously it must increase the entropy of the universe Usually energy flows into most ecosystems in the form of light and exits in the form of heat Free energy is the portion of a systems energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform through the system Delta H- change in the systems enthalpy equivalent to total energy Delta s- change in the systems entropy T- Is the absolute temperature in Calvin? -G is spontaneous H must be negative TS must be positive Every spontaneous process decreases the systems free energy and process that have a positive or zero is never spontaneous Free energy stability and equilibrium Delta G is the difference between the free energy of the final state and the free energy of the
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Chapter 8 - Chapter 8 The second law of thermodynamics...

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