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Unformatted text preview: Study Guide for Exam 1 Page 1 Study Guide- Exam I (covers Classes 1.1 through 1.6) Class 1.1---01/18/07: DNA Structure Know the following terms: Genome, chromosome, nucleotide, ribose, deoxyribose, purine, prymidine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, adenine, uracil, minor groove, major groove, negative supercoiling, positive supercoiling, DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase, central dogma, replication, transcription, translation, transition, transversion, induced mutation, spontaneous mutation, insertion, deletion, back mutation, true reversion, second-site reversion, suppressor mutation. Understand the Following Concepts: 1. Know the structure of the nucleotide (sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base) and how a ribonucleotide is different from a deoxy-ribonucleotide. 2. Know the difference between purine and prymidine nitrogenous bases. 3. Know how nucleotides are assembled into nucleic acid molecules. 4. Be familiar with the overall structure of double-stranded DNA: Know the concepts of antiparllel strands, 5' and 3' polarity, and major and minor grooves. 5. Understand the concept of supercoiling and how cells use it to help package and access DNA. 6. Know the three major types of polymerases and the types of molecules they produce. 7. Know the rules of complementary base pairing in DNA/DNA and DNA/RNA molecules. 8. Understand how nucleotide triphosphates build DNA and RNA from the 3' end. 9. Know what semiconservative replication means. 10. Understand how the concept of the central dogma has changed from its original inception. 11. Understand the concept of T m and how it changes with AT content in DNA. 12. Know the difference between spontaneous and background levels of mutations. 13. Know the difference between transitions and transversion, and be able to recognize the difference from a DNA change. 14. Know the difference between a back mutation and a true reversion. 15. Know the difference between a true reversion and a second-site reversion. 16. Know the difference between a second-site reversion and a second-site suppressor. 17. Understand the concept of a hot spot and how it might relate to the concentration of Cs and DNA methylation. Study Guide for Exam 1 Page 2 Class 1.2---01/23/07: The Concept of the Gene Terms: Gene, locus, protein, polypeptide, phenotype, genotype, homozygote, heterzygote, pleiotropic, complementation, complementation group, loss-of-function, gain-of-function, null, hypomorphic, leaky, hypermorph, neomorph, allele, wildtype, polymorphism, meiosis, gametes, homologous chromosomes, DNA recombination, codon, open reading frame, message strand, template strand, genomic DNA, cDNA, hybridization, introns, exons, preRNA, mRNA, alternative promoter use, differential splicing, transcription unit, gene family, pseudogenes....
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- Spring '07