history4-tool-25may10-150dpi-med

history4-tool-25may10-150dpi-med - History of...

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Unformatted text preview: History of photography (part 4): photography as a tool Marc Levoy Computer Science Department Stanford University CS 178, Spring 2010 ! Marc Levoy Outline ! the technology improves ! popularization of photography ! documenting the growth of America ! gigantic undertakings (around the world) ! the industrial aesthetic ! scientiFc uses of photography ! documenting the social scene ! the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl ! proFle: photographers of the ¡arm Security Administration ! still to come: photojournalism, modern art photography... 2 ! Marc Levoy The technology improves ! 1878 dry-plate photography (Richard Maddox, Charles Bennett) • hardened gelatin-silver bromide • exposure time under one second • plates could be stored, separating shooting from processing ! 1885 paper roll flm (Arthur Melhuish, George Eastman) • gelatin coated onto paper (or Flm) • exposures under 1/10 second • multiple pictures without Fddling ! 1880s shutters (many people) • needed as Flms became more sensitive • focal plane (roller blind), leaf (diaphragm) 3 (wikipedia) ! Marc Levoy The Kodak Camera ! 1888 Kodak camera No. 1 • fxed-Focus, single shutter speed (1/100 sec?) • 100 shots per roll, then mail the camera back For reloading • “You press the button, we do the rest” • $25 For the camera, $10 per roll to process • contribution was not a single invention, but a system 4 George Eastman (1854-1932) (Newhall) (brightbytes.com) ! Marc Levoy Edison’s lighting system ! 1880 patent for incandescent light bulb ! 1882 Frst lighting system, New York City ! system components • central generating station • underground conductors • usage meter • wiring and plugs • sockets and fxtures • Fuses to prevent overloading ! misjudged one component • direct current versus alternating current 5 Thomas Edison (1847-1931) ! Marc Levoy Related technologies ! 1870s German chemistry / dye / drug industries: new processes and compounds, purity, standardization ! 1880 fash photography (using fash powder) ! 1890 platinum paper printing (matte but with a deep black) ! 1873 screen-based halFtone printing For mass publication 6 (wikipedia) frst photograph printed using halFtoning (Tim Page) platinum print (you have to see it in person) ! Marc Levoy Screen-based halftoning (simulated in Photoshop) ! since a printing press can only print black or white (no grays), goal is to convert tones into dots of varying size 7 paper screen image focused on screen screened blurred thresholded inverted original inverted screen now largely replaced with digital halftoning ! Marc Levoy Later technologies 1. 1850s telephoto lenses (Petzval Portrait Lens) 2. 1890s anastigmatic lenses - corrects for all aberrations 3. 1925 35mm camera (Leica I) 4. 1932 photoelectric meter 5. 1930s zoom lenses for cinema (Cooke Vario 40-120mm) 6. 1960s zoom lenses for still cameras 7. 1981 autofocus SLR (Pentax ME-F) 8 1 3 5 7 diffraction-limited ! Marc Levoy Digital photography !...
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history4-tool-25may10-150dpi-med - History of...

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