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HeatEssentials - Heat:theEssentials...

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Heat: the Essentials Heat, Temperature, Specific Heat, Work The first thermometer (Galileo’s) used expansion of gas with temperature: it wasn’t reliable because it failed to allow for atmospheric pressure variation. Mercury in glass became the standard, and made possible the discovery of the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics : If two objects are in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. (The “third body” in a practical situation being the thermometer.) The unit of heat : 1 calorie is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius. BUT the Calories labeling food items are KILOcalories : enough to heat one kilogram of water through one degree! The specific heat of a substance is the heat required in calories to raise the temperature of 1 gram by 1 degree Celsius. And, you must be able to use this to solve simple calorimetric problems: finding specific heat of a sample (as we did in class) by immersing it in boiling water for a while, then transferring it to some cold water at a known temperature and finding the change in cold water temperature. Be aware of the result of Dulong and Petit, that for a whole series of elements the product of atomic weight and specific heat was the same, and its significance in terms of heat capacity per atom.
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