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previous index next Ideal Gas Thermodynamics: Specific Heats, Isotherms, Adiabats Michael Fowler 7/15/08 Introduction: the Ideal Gas Model, Heat, Work and Thermodynamics The Kinetic Theory picture of a gas (outlined in the previous lecture) is often called the Ideal Gas Model . It ignores interactions between molecules, and the finite size of molecules. In fact, though, these only become important when the gas is very close to the temperature at which it become liquid, or under extremely high pressure. In this lecture, we will be analyzing the behavior of gases in the pressure and temperature range corresponding to heat engines, and in this range the Ideal Gas Model is an excellent approximation. Essentially, our program here is to learn how gases absorb heat and turn it into work, and vice versa . This heat-work interplay is called thermodynamics . Julius Robert Mayer was the first to appreciate that there is an equivalence between heat and mechanical work. The tortuous path that led him to this conclusion is described in an earlier lecture, but once he was there, he realized that in fact the numerical equivalence— how many Joules in one calorie in present day terminology—could be figured out easily from the results of some measurements of gas specific heat by French scientists. The key was that they had measured specific heats both at constant volume and at constant pressure . Mayer realized that in the latter case, heating the gas necessarily increased its volume, and the gas therefore did work in pushing to expand its container. Having convinced himself that mechanical work and heat were equivalent, evidently the extra heat needed to raise the temperature of the gas at constant pressure was exactly the work the gas did on its container. ( Historical note : although he did the work in 1842, he didn’t publish until 1845, and at first miscalculated—but then gave a figure within 1% of the correct value of 4.2 joules per calorie.) The simplest way to see what’s going on is to imagine the gas in a cylinder, held in by a piston, carrying a fixed weight, able to move up and down the cylinder smoothly with negligible friction. The pressure on the gas is just the total weight pressing down divided by the area of the piston, and this total weight, of course, will not change as the piston moves slowly up or down: the gas is at constant pressure .
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course PHYSICS 152 taught by Professor Michaelfowler during the Fall '07 term at UVA.

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SpHeatGas - previous index next Ideal Gas Thermodynamics...

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