MIT1_258JS10_lec21

MIT1_258JS10_lec21 - Bus Corridor Service Options Outline...

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Unformatted text preview: Bus Corridor Service Options Outline • • Express • Local • Limited Stop Overlay on Local Service1 • 1 Corridor Objectives and Strategies Deadhead Stacey Schwarcz, "Service Design for Heavy Demand Corridors: Limited-Stop Bus Service." MST Thesis, MIT, September 2004 Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 1 Corridor Design Objectives 1. To reduce cost for providing existing level of service, or 2. To improve the level of service without increasing resources on existing, longer high-frequency corridors Operational Objectives: • • • • Increase the operating speed Reduce the vehicle miles of service Reduce unnecessary slack time at terminals Maintain high, uniform vehicle loadings on all segments Issues are: Service Quality Impacts: • Changes in wait time, walk distance, and need to transfer Ridership Changes: • What ridership changes will result from level of service impacts? Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 2 Strategies A. Express Service ---- Downtown orientation Zonal Express Limited Stops on Express Segment B. Local Service ----- Short Turns/Lines Restricted Zonal Semi-Restricted Zonal Limited Stop Zonal C. Light Direction Strategies --Nigel Wilson Complete Deadheading Partial Deadheading 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 3 Local and Express Service Symbols and Example Schedules 1. Local Service, Route 1 SUBURBS A B C D E CBD SCHEDULE Route 1 A B C D E CBD 7:00 A.M. 7:08 7:15 7:25 7:32 7:45 7:10 7:18 7:25 7:35 7:42 7:55 7:20 7:28 7:35 7:45 7:52 8:05 7:30 7:38 7:45 7:55 8:02 8:15 7:40 7:48 7:55 8:05 8:12 8:25 7:50 7:58 8:05 8:15 8:22 8:35 8:00 8:08 8:15 8:25 8:32 8:45 Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 4 Local and Express Service Symbols and Example Schedules (cont’d) 1. Express Service, Route 1E SUBURBS A B CBD SCHEDULE Route 1E A B C D E CBD 7:10 AM 7:18 ---- ---- ---- 7:35 7:30 7:38 ---- ---- ---- 7:55 7:45 7:53 ---- ---- ---- 8:10 8:00 8:08 ---- ---- ---- 8:25 8:15 8:23 ---- ---- ---- 8:40 8:30 8:38 ---- ---- ---- 8:55 Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 5 Issues In Designing Express Services Downtown Routing: Minimize time on local streets Adding Stops to Express Portions: Minimize impact on capacity and running time Reverse Commuting: Maximize potential for reverse commuting traffic Fares: What fare premium is appropriate? Local Service Interaction: • Is parallel local service viable? • Is express time advantage and frequency sufficient to attract (almost) all downtown riders? Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 6 Zonal Express Service Non-stop express SUBURBS A B CBD C CBD D Route 1E Route 2E SCHEDULE Route 1E A B C D E CBD 7:00 A.M. 7:08 ---- ---- ---- 7:32 7:20 7:28 ---- ---- ---- 7:52 7:40 7:48 ---- ---- ---- 8:12 8:00 8:08 ---- ---- ---- 8:32 SCHEDULE Route 2E A B C D E CBD ---- ---- 7:05 7:13 ---- 7:45 ---- ---- 7:20 7:28 ---- 7:45 ---- ---- 7:35 7:43 ---- 8:00 ---- ---- 7:50 7:58 ---- 8:15 ---- ---- 8:05 8:13 ---- 8:30 Zonal Express Service in the Sheridan Road corridor (simplified) (a) Local Service Total: 80 buses Outer Drive (Expressway) 8 7 6 Potential outlying terminals Nigel Wilson 4 5 3 2 1 CBD Sheridan Rd (local street) 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 8 Zonal Express Service in the Sheridan Road corridor (simplified) (b) Conventional Express Service Total: 72 buses CBD (c) Zonal Express Service Total: 47 buses CBD Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 9 Short-Turning Local Service CBD SUBURBS A B C D E F D E F Turnback point SCHEDULE - Inbound A B C D E F CBD 7:00 A.M. 7:08 7:15 7:18 7:25 7:32 7:45 7:25 7:32 7:39 7:52 7:33 7:40 7:47 8:00 7:40 7:47 7:54 8:07 7:48 7:55 8:02 8:15 7:55 8:02 8:09 8:22 7:15 7:30 Nigel Wilson 7:23 7:38 7:30 7:45 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 10 Restricted Zonal Local Service Restricted boarding/alighting A B D E CBD Route 1 C D E CBD Route 2 E Zone 1 C CBD Route 3 Zone 2 Zone 3 Inbound buses do not stop except to let passengers alight; boarding prohibited. Outbound buses do not stop except to let passengers board; alighting prohibited. Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 11 Restricted Zonal Local Service SCHEDULE - Route 1 A B C D E CBD 7:00 7:08 (7:15)* (7:24) (7:30) 7:42 7:15 7:23 (7:30) (7:39) (7:45) 7:57 7:30 7:38 (7:45) (7:54) (8:00) 8:12 SCHEDULE - Route 2 A B C D E CBD 7:10 7:20 (7:27)* 7:39 7:22 7:32 (7:39) 7:51 7:34 7:44 (7:51) 8:03 E CBD 7:25 7:39 7:35 7:49 7:45 8:59 SCHEDULE - Route 3 A Nigel Wilson B C D 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 12 Semi-Restricted Zonal Local Service (Inbound only) A B C E CBD Route 1 C D E CBD Route 2 E Zone 1 D CBD Route 3 Zone 2 Zone 3 Buses stop only to allow passengers to alight; once stopped, waiting passengers may board. SCHEDULE - Inbound A B C D E CBD 7:00 7:08 (7:15)* (7:24) (7:30)* 7:42 Route 1 7:10 7:20 (7:27)* 7:39 Route 2 7:25 7:39 Route 3 7:15 (7:39)* (7:45)* 7:57 Route 1 7:32 (7:39)* 7:51 Route 2 7:35 7:49 Route 3 7:45 7:38 (7:30)* 7:22 7:30 7:23 8:59 Route 3 (7:45) (7:54) (8:00)* 8:12 Route 1 7:34 7:44 (7:51)* 8:03 Route 2 7:55 8:09 Route 3 Limited-Stop Zonal Local Service Designated Stops A B B D C D F E H CBD Route 1 F H CBD Route 2 H CBD Route 3 F Zone 1 G Zone 3 Zone 2 SCHEDULE - Inbound A B C D E F G H I CBD 7:00 AM 7:12 ----- 7:19 ----- 7:26 ----- 7:33 ----- 7:40 Route 1 7:13 7:17 7:22 7:27 7:31 ----- 7:38 ----- 7:45 Route 2 7:30 7:35 7:40 7:45 7:50 Route 3 7:15 ----- 7:34 ----- 7:41 ----- 7:48 ----- 7:55 Route 1 7:28 7:32 7:37 7:42 7:46 ----- 7:53 ----- 8:00 Route 2 7:45 Nigel Wilson 7:27 7:50 7:55 8:00 8:05 Route 3 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 14 Bus Service in Wilshire Boulevard Corridor Los Angeles CBD Beverly Hills Santa Monica Local Service Route 308 Limited Stop Service Routes 20, 21, 22 Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 15 Limited Stop Overlay on Local Service: Research Objectives • Establish guidelines for the addition of limited-stop service • Create a procedure and model for evaluation and design • Apply the model to CTA case studies Ref: Stacey Schwarcz, "Service Design for Heavy Demand Corridors: Limited-Stop Bus Service." MST Thesis, MIT, September 2004. Extended research now being conducted by Harvey Scorcia. Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 16 Key Elements of Limited-Stop Service Design • Stop Reduction • Running Time Savings – Dwell times – Traffic and traffic signal delay • Frequency split • Resources: neutral or increased? Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 17 CTA Limited-Stop Routes • 3/X3,4/X4, 49/X49, 55/X55, 80/X80, 9/X9, 54A/54B/X54 • Average Route Length: ~8 miles; range: 7.5 to 16 miles • Stop Reduction: 60-70% of existing stops • Run Time reductions range from 13-26% • Frequency split: 50-60% local service initially; based on MIT research, changed to 60-67% express, maintaining at least 15-minute headway on local service Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 18 Findings • Success of limited-stop service depends on – – – – Running time savings Frequency split between local and limited-stop service Demand pattern: trip end concentration and trip length Large number of limited-stop-only or choice riders • Eliminating stops affects access time: the number of limitedstop only riders decreases as stop spacing increases • Eliminating stops on CTA routes has had moderate impacts (13-26%) on running times • Potential Strategy for Limited-Stop Service – Increase stop spacing while maintaining low frequency service on the local Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 19 Model Overview • Model Assumptions – Demand is fixed (H. Scorcia is updating) – Local Stop Spacing is fixed – Total Dwell Time for the route does not change based on the stop spacing, frequency configuration, or boardings (H. Scorcia update) • Makes use of AVL and APC data to determine running times and the O-D demand matrix • Evaluates a specific user defined stop spacing and headway configuration • Calculates travel time components for each O-D pair Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 20 Model Overview (cont'd) • Assignment: – Stop Choice (H. Scorcia is updating; new survey performed) – Route Choice (at combined stops only) – Local captive, choice, and limited-stop only riders • High number of limited-stop-only or choice riders needed for success – Based on minimum weighted travel time – Access Time=3, Wait Time=2, In Vehicle Time=1 (Loosely based on CATS) • Calculates evaluation measures – Net passenger minutes of total travel time, number of limited-stop only riders Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 21 Deadheading Strategies A. Deadhead all vehicles on route: Possible with one (or more) routes of short turn or zonal route system B. Deadhead some vehicles on route: Deadhead every other bus (or 2 out of every 3) with remainder in service Issues: 1. Can a vehicle be saved by deadheading? 2. Will there be adverse public reaction? (easier if by different route) Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 22 Key Factors in Determining the Potential Benefit of Route Redesign of a Corridor Overall Trunk Frequency Corridor Length Below 1.7 fmin* Below 2 miles 1.7 fmin - 2.0 fmin 2 fmin - 4 fmin Above 4 fmin NOT A CANDIDATE FOR REDESIGN 2-4 miles 4-6 miles MILD POTENTIAL CONSIDERABLE POTENTIAL 6-8 miles HIGH POTENTIAL Above 8 miles *fmin = minimum acceptable frequency for a peak period radial route Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 23 General Characteristics Short-Turn Restricted Zonal none Semi-Restricted Zonal none Limited-Stop Zonal Need for schedule coordination and strict adherence valuable in a.m. Reliance on overtaking none strong moderate strong Wait time impact* up by 90% in outer segment, by 20% in inner segment up by 90% throughout up by 90% in outer segment, by 20% in inner segment up by 90% in outer segment, by 20% in inner segment In-vehicle time reduction none considerable moderate considerable Walk-distance impact* none none none up by 0.2 mi. for some passengers Difficulty in public comprehension little considerable considerable moderate Corridor length short long medium-long long Fraction of local (non-CBD) travel moderate to high small moderate moderate to high Outer segment volume low low low any vital in p.m. unnecessary in a.m. valuable in p.m. * Average impact to peak direction travelers in typical application Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 24 Strategies Best Suited to Different Ratios of Peak Volume to Uptown Boardings1 25 Strategy 50 75 60 100% 100% 80 Restricted zonal 40 Semi-Restricted 60 95 100% zonal2 30 40 80 90% Limited-Stop zonal 25 50 80% Overlapping zonal Legend range in which strategy can be effectively operated range in which strategy is likely to be most promising 1 2 For inbound direction. When the peak direction is outbound, use the ratio of peak volume to uptown alightings (PV/UA). The same figures apply. Can be operated inbound only. Nigel Wilson 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 25 Effect of Corridor Length on Choice of Local Operating Strategy Strategy 4 mi. or less 4-6 mi. 6-9 mi. Restricted Zonal •• •• •• Semi- Restricted Zonal •• •• Limited-Stop Zonal •• •• Overlapping Local •• •• Skip-Stop •• •• Legend •• discourages use of strategy encourages use of strategy Nigel Wilson •• •• 1.258J/1.541J/ESD.226J Spring 2010, Lecture 21 9 mi. or more •• •• •• \ •• neutral strongly encourages use of strategy 26 MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 1.258J / 11.541J / ESD.226J Public Transportation Systems Spring 2010 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2011 for the course ESD 11.380j taught by Professor Fredsalvucci during the Fall '02 term at MIT.

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