11 - Road to WWII • US in 1920’s isolationism wrong...

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Unformatted text preview: 11/4/11 Road to WWII • US in 1920’s: isolationism wrong term o Economic involvement continues o Unilateralism in political, military realm • US Foreign policy in 1930’s: Prevent WWI o Nye Commission hearings of war profits o Neutrality acts, 1935-36 o Cash and Carry policy on non-military goods, 1937 o Cash and Carry arms exports rejected, spring 1939 • Europe’s downward spiral: failures of Versailles, League o Weakness of Versailles, rise of Hitler o Italian invasion of Ethiopia 1935, League impotent o German rearmament, 1936 ff. o Spanish Civil War, 1936-39 o German Anschluss w. Austria, spring 1938 o German aggression against Czechs, Munich agreement, Sept. 1938 • Slow American Shift to Preparedness o Naval expansion act, 1938, two ocean navy o Cash and Carry arms exports allowed, Nov. 1939 o Sept. 1940, destroyer-bases swap o Lend-Lease Act, March 1941 o Undeclared Naval War, Atlantic Charter, summer 1941 • Japanese-American collision course in Pacific 11/9/11 World War 2: Military • Road to Pearl Harbor (s. Wed.) • Pacific Turnaround by mid-1942 o Coral Sea o Midway Initial American Carrier attack went unsuccessful Luckily 37 Dive bombers went off course and caught the Japanese off guard refueling planes on carriers • Europe-First Policy • Allied Division of Labor: US, Russians, British o US – Provided Technology o Russians – Cannon Fodder o British – Provided the British isles (base) • Second Front Question: when and where o N. African Invasion, Nov. ‘42 o Italy, mid-43 o Normandy, June ‘44 • British-US Differences on 2 nd Front • Impact on Future Shape of Europe • Atomic bomb Decision o Projected US Casualties ½ -1 million casualties on each side o Okinawa example 1900 kamikaze’s, 38 ships sunk 50,000 US casualties o Conventional destruction 11/11/11 Origins of Cold War • Polish Question, E. Europe • Greek Crisis, 1947 • Truman Doctrine • Marshall Plan • Fulbright Program • Founding of NATO • Common Market as spinoff • Eisenhower/Kennedy policy comparison • COLD WAR ERA: ASIA • “Losing” China Assumes that China was ours to lose o Two Factions in China – more interested in fighting each other than the Japanese Chaing (Jiang): nationalist dictator • US supported, most for not Mao: communist dictator • Support of the pheasants played a huge role • Domestic Repercussions: McCarthyism – communist hysteria o Fall of ’49: LA, lady gets communist letters, reports it and avoids being black listed Led to the marriage of Ronald Reagan • Nancy Davis (Reagan) o Loyalty boards to investigate gov’t. employees Many fired or resign o Manhattan Project – atomic spy Electric Chair in 1953 – no evidence they passed along anything important o MaCarthy – claimed he knew communist in the country Claimed army was shielding communist Witch hunting • Korean War – divided by the 38 th parallel o Origins North Korean initiative...
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11 - Road to WWII • US in 1920’s isolationism wrong...

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