11-2-11 - Missed 10/31/11 11/2/11 Cross Sectional Study o A...

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Missed 10/31/11 11/2/11 Cross Sectional Study o A study that captures all of the data for each participant at one time period o A study that tests different age groups at the same time o Between subjects design (can only be one age at a time) Advantages All of the age groups can be tested at the same time; very economical Disadvantages Age confounded with date of birth; therefore you cannot test for cohort effects Longitudinal Study o A study in which data on the same people are collected at multiple time periods o A study that tests individuals in a single cohort over the course of time o Cohort – a group that has something in common, often age o Typically within subjects designs with repeated measurements, but can be between subjects o Often quasi experiments because they involve pre-existing groups Advantages Allows for the assessment of change in variables over time; time is a variable o Used extensively in developmental psychology Disadvantages of Longitudinal Design o Takes years to conduct research o Age is confounded with time of testing o Secular trends – a change that is taking place in the general population over time o Threats to internal validity Mortality Selection survival Selection dropout History Testing Tests over and over again effect performance Cross-Sequential/Time-Lag Designs o Design tests individuals from 2 or more cohorts at 2 or more times o Design used to help separate developmental, cohort, and secular effects o Popular in social psychology/marketing o Time-lag effect – the effect resulting from comparing subjects of the same age at different times; shows secular trends
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Program Evaluation o A set of techniques for determining the effectiveness of a social service program o All federally funded programs must be evaluated o Indicators of effectiveness vary o Program evaluators work for organization being evaluated or external sponsor (political dimension) Sources of Resistance to Program Evaluation o Fear that program will be terminated o Fear of losing control of program o Fear that information will be abused o Fear that the wrong measures will be used o Belief that evaluation is pointless o Hopes are too high Program Evaluation Steps o Examine the literature o Identify objectives o Determine the methodology o Identify the stakeholders o Ensure type of evaluation matches objectives Summative Formative o Present a written report 11/7/11 Meta-Analysis o Definition A set of statistical methods for quantitatively aggregating the
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2011 for the course PSYC 204 taught by Professor Payne during the Fall '08 term at Texas A&M.

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11-2-11 - Missed 10/31/11 11/2/11 Cross Sectional Study o A...

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