EEB142 Exam 1 Study Questions Answers

EEB142 Exam 1 Study Questions Answers - EEB142 Study...

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EEB142 Study Questions 1. List five ecologically important ways that water differs from air. a. Density, water is denser than air, affecting buoyancy. b. Light, is much more intense on land, ocean is stratified c. heat capacity d. heat conduction e. chemical make-up 1. How do the transport properties of water create differences between terrestrial and marine ecosystems? 2. What materials increase organismal buoyancy in water? Which decrease it? Materials that increase buoyancy of organisms in water are those that are less dense than the water. Such materials are fats and oils, internal air such as the swim bladder that fish possess. Material denser than water decrease buoyancy of organisms; bone and shell, muscle mass are heavy materials that decrease buoyancy. 3. Why don’t we see organisms that are positively buoyant in air? Because the lowest density possible biologically is greater than the density of air, nothing in nature is positively or neutrally buoyant in air. some living matter “float” in air, because they are so small, they fall very slowly and air currents keep them up, such as pollen or dandelion seeds. 4. What is the difference between open and closed populations? Open populations allow gene flows 5. Are organisms with a complex life cycle part of an open or closed population? 6. How do patterns of primary production differ between the marine and terrestrial ecosystems? 7. Which is higher in the ocean as compared to land- species or phyletic diversity? Species diversity is higher on land because the populations are localized. Phyletic diversity is higher in sea because almost half of animal phyla are exclusively marine. Phyletic diversity is variation in the working body plans (phyla) of organisms.
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8. Why might the number of species in the ocean be underestimated (3 reasons)? a. Cryptic species that look alike, but are actually different species b. Inaccessible environments such as vents c. Hard to collect species such as gelatinous species d. Hard to detect species such as viruses and bacteria 9. How does external fertilization contribute to the existence of cryptic species? External fertilization allows for cryptic species to 10. How does the fluid environment cause carbon transport to differ between terrestrial and marine environments? 11. What are two functions of basal species? Give an example of a basal species that is a primary producer and an example of a basal species that is not a primary producer. 12. How does the heat conduction of water influence the physiology of aquatic animals? 13. How does the ability of animals to exchange gases with the environment differ between water and air? 14. Why does intermediate disturbance help maintain a diverse community? 15. What is the difference between the accelerating, cruising and maneuvering fish
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EEB142 Exam 1 Study Questions Answers - EEB142 Study...

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