EEB142 Exam 2 Study Questions Answers

EEB142 Exam 2 Study Questions Answers - EEB142 Midterm 2...

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EEB142 Midterm 2 Study Questions 1 1. What are some ways that animals use the mangrove root system as habitat? Mangrove surface for encrusting species Boring species tunnel in roots Complex nursery habitat for mobile animals Epibionts - organisms that live on surface of another organism 2. What causes the geographical limits of mangrove forests? Mangroves forests need tropical conditions: winter air temperature > 20 ° C and water temperatures > 20 ° C (warm constant temperature), little water action (calm waters), low nutrient, light source, stable constant conditions overall. 3. What adaptations do mangrove exhibit to cope with the high salinity and low oxygen sediments of their habitat? High Salinity Adaptations: Salt filter on root surface Salt glands on leaves to actively excrete salt Elevated amino acid levels to balance osmotic pressure with seawater Low Oxygen Adaptations: Aerial roots extended from base of tree through air, extend overtime into sediments Pneumatophores grow from sediment up into air Propagule (seedling) drop-off reproduction, germination above water on tree 4. How do crabs positively and negatively affect mangrove forests? How were these effects experimentally tested? Negative - crab predation on white mangrove propagules, which have most carbohydrate energy value and least defensive chemicals. Smith tethered propagules (1m strings) and looked for strings in burrows, also used strings without propagule (control) Positive - water chemistry, crabs removed both ammonium and sulfide, sulfide is toxic to mangroves. Smith, dug burrows, left crabs, monitored chemical levels. 5. Describe three ways that mangrove roots provide habitat to other species. Mangrove surface for encrusting species Boring species tunnel in roots Complex nursery habitat for mobile animals 6. Describe two ways that sponges growing on mangrove root benefit mangroves. What benefit does the sponge derive from this association? Reduced attack from burrowing crustaceans Sponge transferred nitrogen compounds to mangroves Mangroves transfer carbon to sponges Facultative mutualism 7. Explain the idea of how environmental stability contributes to coral diversity. What are two lines of evidence for this?
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8. What is the connection between mangroves, sea-grass beds and coral reefs in terms of the life history of fish? Recruit from plankton to mangrove Juveniles move to seagrass bed Adults move to coral reef 9. Describe the important herbivores in sea grass beds. Green sea turtle controlled sea grass disease by cropping off the top and leaving the base of sea grass. Manatees and Dugongs create sediment disturbance in sea grass beds during consumption, which allows sea grass fish to eat. Urchins
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EEB142 Exam 2 Study Questions Answers - EEB142 Midterm 2...

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