Section 4 slides

Section 4 slides - 10/17/11 Earliest Known Cases and...

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10/17/11 1 When and Where Did AIDS Begin? When and Where Did HIV Arise? Earliest Known Cases and Earliest Blood or Tissue Samples 1959 - Kinshasa (Bantu man) 1960 – Kinshasa (female) Mid 1960s, Norwegian family (died 1976) 1969 - US teenager (antibody positive) Origin of HIV Theories UFO Human Made (DOD; CIA; Israel and SA; Soviet Plot) Human Origin (It’s always been there - spread by urbanization) Animal origin (cats; cattle, pigs & sheep; monkey viruses during vaccine development - malaria; polio) Current thinking: HIV-2 from Sooty Mangabey; most HIV-1 from Chimpanzee – start of 20 th century) Origin of HIV Theories Polio vaccine – not No HIV RNA in OPV OPV from macaques, not chimpanzees HIV-1 already diversified Wrong time frame by 5 decades Ways HIV Spreads Small number of people initially; via known transmission routes Reuse of needles for antibiotics and vaccines Movement of people (urbanization; migration during natural disasters; tourism; war - refugee camps, rape, prostitution, troop movements in and out of areas) From SIV to HIV? Zoonosis? Increase in pathogenicity of an organism when introduced into another species Cat vaccine led to canine deaths Polio virus cultured in monkeys and monkey kidneys - other viruses were harvested Simian virus 40 (SV40) Monkey B virus Marburg Monkey Virus
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10/17/11 2 From SIV to HIV? Monkey B led to human deaths Marburg-Monkey 31 people infected 7 deaths sexual transmission in 1 case (researcher to sexual partner) How From SIV to HIV? Monkeys/Non-human primates Est. 40 non-human primate spp. carry SIV (underestimate) Est. 20% of sooty mangabeys and chimpanzees harbor SIV (underestimate) food: obtaining and preparing? blood contact?
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Section 4 slides - 10/17/11 Earliest Known Cases and...

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