Section 10 & 11 slides

Section 10 & 11 slides - Vaccine 2.6 million new...

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11/27/11 1 2.6 million new HIV infections – 2009 7,000 new infections/day – 2009 50-52,000 new infections/yr - US Most regions with stable/declining incidence Some still have increasing HIV incidence This speaks to the need for prevention Vaccine Increase immunity to particular disease Killed organism Attenuated organism Organism antigens Recombinant organism Ideal Vaccine Safe Easy to administer One or two immunizations needed Stable Inexpensive Long-lasting immunity against many strains Protects against virions and infected cells Protects against all routes of entry Provokes strong and rapid response HIV Vaccine Background Identified in 1983 by Montagnier and 1984 by Gallo 1980s saw the promise of recombinant technology Hep B vaccine - Genentech 1981 Recombinant surface antigens used as vaccine Safe, effective Hunt for a vaccine Resources Biological challenges Preventative vaccines Therapeutic vaccines HIV Vaccine Development Problems HIV mutates rapidly HIV integrates into host DNA (hides) Unknown safety of HIV components HIV spreads from cell to cell HIV diminishes immune response No great animal model Who will participate in clinical trials
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11/27/11 2 Other Barriers Political barriers at the start of the epidemic Emphasis on drugs by early AIDS activists Economic costs Pharmaceutical companies look at market share - undeveloped nations not as attractive Is HIV Unique? HIV attacks components of the immune system - the very system elicited by vaccines Some unidentified factor about the virus that thwarts immune responses SIV Infected Monkeys Rhesus macaques infected with SIV and come down with SAIDS (1970s) Live vaccine trial Recombinant vaccine - crippled but alive Protected monkeys from SIV BUT infant macaques developed AIDS from vaccine alone Exposed But Uninfected Populations of people repeatedly exposed do not have the virus in them Prostitutes in Kenya and Gambia test negative for virus but positive for STDs Isolated cells are HIV infected Do NOT have an antibody response Looking for wrong part of immune system??? Exposed But Uninfected Mount cellular response - killer T cells (CTLs) involved in clearing HIV from body Circulating HIV infects cells, but also known that major mechanism of infection is cell-cell Antibodies unable to effectively respond Cellular immunity is required HIV Vaccine must induce Cell mediated immunity Mucosal Ab immunity Effective response against diverse strains Protection against viral particles and infected cells
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11/27/11 3 Future hopes Smallpox was human only virus Polio is a human only virus Dracunculosis is a human only parasite Leprosy is primarily human only HIV is primarily human only Future hopes RV144 – prime-boost vaccine ALVAC – prime (Canarypox with HIV Ag)
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2011 for the course BIOL 327 taught by Professor Peteringmire during the Fall '11 term at S.F. State.

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Section 10 & 11 slides - Vaccine 2.6 million new...

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