Lecture05 - Lecture Summary 05 September 01, 2006 Chapter 2...

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Lecture Summary 05 September 01, 2006 Chapter 2 - Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Acid base reactions are fundamental processes that are required for the initiation of many organic reactions. Recall some of the definitions from general chemistry. Brønsted-Lowry Acid - a substance that donates a proton (H + ). Brønsted-Lowry Base - A substance that accepts a proton. Acidity Constant (K a ) - the equilibrium described by a given acid base reaction. HA H 2 O H 3 O A acid base conjugate acid conjugate base K a = HA H 3 O A pK a = -log K a + + The higher the K a , the higher the acidity. This is exactly opposite for the pK a value. An acid base equilibrium will lie on the side of the weaker acid. Resonance effects have a large impact on acidity. CH 3 CH 2 OH + H 3 C C O O H 3 C C O O CH 3 CH 2 O + H 3 C C O O H pK a = 16 pK a = 4.8 No resonance Acetate can spread out negative charge. The more delocalized a charge is, the lower energy (more stable) it is. Thus, it's
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Lecture05 - Lecture Summary 05 September 01, 2006 Chapter 2...

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