week05-TowardThe20thCentury - Introduction to Industrial...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Industrial Design Toward the 20th Century Lecturer TA Hyeon‐Jeong Suk (h.j.suk@kaist.ac.kr) Mokryun Baik (mokryun.baik@gmail.com) Class Office hour Monday, 2pm~5pm (#109, N8) Thursday, 10am~12pm (#406, N8) © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST Design until the 19th Century © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 2 © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 3 © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 4 Machine -made.. 한땀한땀.. versus © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 5 Criticism of dehumanizing consequences of industrialization: • Culture of elite affordable well‐ designed goods for the majority • Craftsmanship Efficiency • Genuine material Alternatives • Authentic Optimizing © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 6 Bad taste ORIGINAL Counterfeit No taste Good design © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, being aware of industrializingCED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 7 Toward the 20th Century Context The Industrial Revolution • Key inventions available to the everyday consumer o Home: electric lighting, domestic appliances o Communication media: telephone, gramophone, cinema (later, radio) o Transportation: automobile: Volkswagen (later, airplane) © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 8 Toward the 20th Century Context The Industrial Revolution • Mass‐production © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 9 © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 10 The Model 14 bentwood chair by M. Thonet, 1859 The worlds’ first mass‐produced chair ; sold more than 50 mil. 1 piece! Air chair by J. Morrison for Magis (1999): Made as a single unit in gas‐injected polypropylene © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 11 Toward the 20th Century Context Competitions in the marketplace • Department stores selected items and people © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 12 Toward the 20th Century Context Competitions in the marketplace • (Overwhelming success of ) Mail‐order shopping catalogue (e.g. Montgomery Ward Mail Order, 1872) for everybody, nationwide, providing the full range of domestic goods (mainly in) European‐like styles “dishonest, too ornamental, resulting over‐ consumption” by design reformers © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 13 © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 14 © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 15 Toward the 20th Century New paradigm The Industrial Revolution Competitions in the marketplace Reconciling design thinking with the realities of mass‐production Design for luxury • Mass‐production Design for survival • Manufacturing technologies • Key inventions Design for living Design for the BETTER living Art Nouveau (France), Jugendstil (Germany, Austria) DWB(Deutscher Werkbund) © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 16 © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 17 Toward the 20th Century In UK • Concerns about the decline in exports & domestic sales due to poor standards of design in British manufacture. • Art & Crafts Movement: Tried to reconciling the ideals of producing well‐designed goods at an affordable price with economic realities of mass‐production • The Basis of British design spirit: a respect for materials, concern for appropriate modes of construction, a high premium on craftsmanship © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 18 Toward the 20th Century In UK • DIA (Design and Industries Association, 1915): ‘a more intelligent demand .. For what is best and soundest in design’, ‘machine enters to a greater or lesser extent into the making of all our products to‐day’. (e.g. Johnston’s Railway typography) An establishment of a state‐funded British Institute of Industrial Art (1920), Council for Art and Industry (1933) © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 19 Toward the 20th Century In France • Relatively weaker influence of design reform movement due to the strong belief in the freedom of artistic creativity untainted by the economics of the mass‐market. • Devotion to decorative art with emphasis on craftsmanship and quality Art Nouveau Style © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 20 Characterized Characterized by writhing plant forms, a style of decoration and architecture developed in the 1880s and 1890s. A bridge between the decoration (e.g. W. Morris) and the modern (W. Gropius). Book cover, A. Mackmurdo, 1883 © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 21 © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 22 Toward the 20th Century Art Nouveau style in France Toward the 20th Century Art Nouveau style in France © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 23 © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 24 Toward the 20th Century Art Nouveau style in France Toward the 20th Century In Germany • The state support for reforming education in the applied arts • Jugendstil (1902): exploring an aesthetic which, through its appropriateness for machine production, could provide quality goods at a competitive price—at least for an educated middle‐class (Jugendstil ≈ Art Nouveau in German) © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 25 Toward the 20th Century In Germany • DWB(1907): demonstrating high standards in design. Brought artists and industrialists to improve the quality and design of German consumer products as art of the wider impetus to social, cultural, and economic reform. R. Riemerschmid’s little walnut chair, 1899: cleverly designed to include a diagonal element that supports 26 © Dr. wasJeong Suk, CED Lab. | of of Industrial Design, the whole structure and leaves the seat open. Its simple form Hyeon‐ characteristicDept.DW designs. KAIST Toward the 20th Century The German avant‐garde • Peter Behrens at AEG (1907): imposed a strong visual coherence for the company, commencing with graphics, AEG buildings, appliances, shops, workers’ housing a modern corporate identity. A strong emphasis on clear form and efficient manufacturing but rooted in traditional forms and decoration, being responsive to consumers’ anticipated expectations. © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 27 Toward the 20th Century The Austrian avant‐garde • Secessionist movement in the late 19th C (e.g. G. Klimt). • Wiener Werkstaette (Vienna Workshops, 1903): influenced by the ideals of British Arts and Crafts Movements, desired the simplicity of form. Only played a symbolic role of design reform movement. © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 28 Toward the 20th Century In USA • Taylorism (Principles of Scientific Management in the planning of efficient, labor‐saving kitchens and domestic equipment), Fordism (Henry Ford’s introduction of the moving assembly line for the Model T Ford automobile in 1913) Economic implications for standardized mass production © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 29 Toward the 20th Century New paradigm Efforts to reconcile design thinking with the realities of mass‐production • State: educational reforms in the visual arts • Society: periodicals to “elevate” public taste • Designer‐led Reform: Jugendstil, Vienna Workshop, DWB (1907: symposia, exhibitions, publications, membership) 근대적 대량생산 기술에 부합하는 디자인 어휘와 어법을 구축함으로써, 20세기의 ‘진정한 정신’에 어울리는 신소재와 형태의 가능성을 탐색하고자 함. © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 30 Toward the 20th Century Recap • • • • • • • • • Mass‐production Arts & Crafts Movement William Morris Art Nouveau Jugendstil DWB (Deutscher Werkbund) Vienna Workshops Peter Behrens & AEG Model T and Fordism © Dr. Hyeon‐Jeong Suk, CED Lab. | Dept. of Industrial Design, KAIST 31 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2011 for the course ID 215 taught by Professor Suk during the Spring '11 term at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology.

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