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00_intro - What is Computer Architecture Computer...

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CIS 501 (Martin): Introduction 1 CIS 501 Computer Architecture Unit 0: Introduction Slides developed by Milo Martin & Amir Roth at the University of Pennsylvania with sources that included University of Wisconsin slides by Mark Hill, Guri Sohi, Jim Smith, and David Wood. CIS 501 (Martin): Introduction 2 What is Computer Architecture? “Computer Architecture is the science and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance and cost goals.” - WWW Computer Architecture Page An analogy to architecture of buildings… CIS 501 (Martin): Introduction 3 What is Computer Architecture? Plans The role of a building architect: Materials Steel Concrete Brick Wood Glass Goals Function Cost Safety Ease of Construction Energy Efficiency Fast Build Time Aesthetics Buildings Houses Offices Apartments Stadiums Museums Design Construction CIS 501 (Martin): Introduction 4 What is Computer Architecture? The role of a computer architect: “Technology” Logic Gates SRAM DRAM Circuit Techniques Packaging Magnetic Storage Flash Memory Goals Function Performance Reliability Cost/Manufacturability Energy Efficiency Time to Market Computers Desktops Servers Mobile Phones Supercomputers Game Consoles Embedded Plans Design Manufacturing Important differences : age (~60 years vs thousands), rate of change, automated mass production (magnifies design)
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CIS 501 (Martin): Introduction 5 Computer Architecture Is Different… • Age of discipline • 60 years (vs. five thousand years) • Rate of change • All three factors (technology, applications, goals) are changing • Quickly • Automated mass production • Design advances magnified over millions of chips • Boot-strapping effect • Better computers help design next generation CIS 501 (Martin): Introduction 6 Design Goals Functional • Needs to be correct • And unlike software, difficult to update once deployed • What functions should it support (Turing completeness aside) Reliable • Does it continue to perform correctly? • Hard fault vs transient fault • Google story - memory errors and sun spots • Space satellites vs desktop vs server reliability High performance • “Fast” is only meaningful in the context of a set of important tasks • Not just “Gigahertz” – truck vs sports car analogy • Impossible goal: fastest possible design for all programs CIS 501 (Martin): Introduction 7 Design Goals Low cost • Per unit manufacturing cost (wafer cost) • Cost of making first chip after design (mask cost) • Design cost (huge design teams, why? Two reasons…) • (Dime/dollar joke) Low power/energy • Energy in (battery life, cost of electricity) • Energy out (cooling and related costs) • Cyclic problem, very much a problem today Challenge: balancing the relative importance of these goals • And the balance is constantly changing No goal is absolutely important at expense of all others • Our focus:
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