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Unformatted text preview: EXAM # 2 Review (Ch. 8-14) Ch 8: Socioeconomic status and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Health • People with low socioeconomic status (SES) due to factors such as limited education and low income, have higher rate of morbidity and mortality compared with those who have more economic resources. • What is socioeconomic Status? • Refers to a system of stratification whereby individuals are classified in a hierarchy along various dimensions of social class. The origins of the term can be found in Karl Marx’s notion of social class. • Classical Marxist theory classified individuals on the basis of their relationship to the “means of production’- that is, the economic system of the society • Max Weber advanced Marx’s notion of social class by noting that although the individuals’ relationship to the means of production was important, there were other dimensions in society upon which individuals can be places to form hierarchy. Weber viewed classes as groupings of individuals who have similar life chances • Although Weber viewed stratification more broadly than Marx did, they were in basic agreement that societies place individuals within social stratification hierarchies. • Measures of Socioeconomic Status • The six most frequently used measures of socioeconomic status are (1.)Poverty, (2.)Income, (3.)Education, (4.)Occupation, (5.) wealth, and (6.)Various indexes that combine income, education, and occupational prestige. • Income inequality is a measure that compares the SES of groups in relation to one another • INCOME •-measures attempt to stratify individuals on the basis of the amount of money the individual has at his or her disposal • In studies of SES and health that use income, income is sometimes measured as “individual income”- the income generated by the specific individual who is a participant in the study. However, more often income is measured as “family or household income”, because although individual income can be informative about some aspects of the individual being studied, the family income is typically a better indicator of the actual amount of income the individual is able to access. • Primary benefit of using income as a measure of SES is that it can be clearly defined and measured as the amount of dollars earned. Also, there are standardized ways to compute adjustments to income that will allow for comparisons over time, to compare groups of individuals or to compare societies. • Shortcomings to using income as measure= people refuse to answer questions about income, differences among individuals who report the same income due to household size, income is subject to “downward drift or reverse causation” • Downward Drift (reverse causation) - refers to the phenomenon in which an individual who health status declines may find their income also declining....
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- Fall '08