Lecture_12-Rm - SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL...

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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP ENGR 202 /4R Lecture 11 April 08 /2010 FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE Instructor: Dr. Saleh Kaoser Winter session
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Agenda Remaining Course materials and Final exam.
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Production of residues having impact on air a. Emission of gases (particular matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), Carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), Ozone (O 3 ), metal vapour (Pb, Hg), Volatile Organic compounds (VOCs, furans). b. Air Toxic substances PAHs- Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene, toluene) c. Acid depositions (due to SO 2 production) d. Emission of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide CO 2 , methane CH 4 , nitrus oxides N 2 O, perfluorcarbons PFCs, sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), water vapour. e. Stratospheric ozone depletion (chlorofluorocarbons CFCs) making “ozone hole”. f. Heat emission (Thermal decomposition of pine wood)
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Photosynthesis converts massive amount of sunlight into electrical and then chemical energy. The input is carbondioxide (CO 2 ), water (H 2 O), minerals and light, and the output is carbohydrates (food) that we need for our nourishment, and oxygen that we need to breathe. Ref: Hall, D.O. and K.K. Rao (1999) Photosynthesis. 6th Edition,Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. (http://www.life.uiuc.edu/govindjee/whatisit.htm) Photosynthesis
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Pollution Reduction Approaches Engineering Cleaner Cars (1)Cars with low emissions; (2) Alternative fuels; (3) Alternative vehicles: (a) Battery powered cars; (b) Hybrid vehicles; (c) Fuel Cells (1) Cars with low emissions This approach is addressed to reduce the incomplete combustion which results the emission of CO, HC, and NOx. CO CO 2 Greenhouse gas (Disadvantage?) Engine catalytic converter (Advantage?) Exhaust pipe Muffler CO 2 , which is released from the vehicle’s exhaust system, is increased by the catalytic converter. CO is transformed into carbon dioxide, is harmless to humans, but it is a greenhouse gas and causing the planet to warm up.
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Landfill gas The mixture of gases produced from the anaerobic breakdown of organic material in landfill. Typically consists of 50-60% methane (CH 4 ), 30-40% carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), 10% nitrogen (N 2 ), small amounts of other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Methane is a very potent greenhouse gas, 21 times more so than carbon dioxide. Anaerobic condition
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Greenhouse Gases 1. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 2. Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O) 4. Ozone in the Lower Atmosphere (O 3 ) 3 Methane (CH 4 ) 5. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) 6. Water vapor (H 2 O) Green house gases are gases that are responsible for the green house effect (increase of earth atmospheric temperature/ Global Warming)
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A class of chemicals known as Chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) were found responsible for the chlorine atoms in the stratosphere. CFCs are Odorless, Colorless, Nonflammable, Non-corrosive but extremely stable. Because of their role in the destruction of stratospheric
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Lecture_12-Rm - SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL...

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