Textbook notes India

Textbook notes India - India Congress Party has monstly led...

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India - Congress Party has monstly led since 1947 - Descended from the independence movement led by Mahatma Gandhi o Commited to vision of modern, industrialized, secular state - In 21 st cenitury led by Bharain terms of HInduttvatiya Janata Party(BJP) o Committed to redifining Indian national identity - Conflicts with Pakistan over Kashmir - Becomes nuclear power in 1998 - In 2004 BJP campaign dubbed “India shining” o Economic boom in India o Leader in technology o Booming population - However BJP percent of vote drops from 56 to 35 percent and Congress party is able to form coalition o Congress party allies are more lefist o Despite economic boom there was still poverty and huge class divisions o People not choosing a reversal of successful BJP economic policy but more help for the poorer classes Pre-Independence India: Civlization and Empire to Colonialism and Nationalism Civlization and empire: the sources of identity and unity in south asia - Northern and central plains of Indian subcontinent settled by ligher-skinned Indo- Aryans o Many different language loosely related to roots in ancient Sanskrit - Darker-skinned Dravidians, who were native to the subcontinent, became concentrated in the southern part of India o Languages not derived from Sanskrit - No one language unifying people in India - Hindi is the main indigenous sofficial language o Soken by 36 percent of population o Spreak over northern states called “Hindi belt” - English is an official language and spoken by 5 percent o Government documents o Some newspapers - Urdu is spoken by Muslims - Language differences have had political significane given the nature of state boundaries in India - First empire in South Asia was founded by Chandragpta Marya in 326 BC o This and subsequent empires helped establish a bureaucracy and related different regions, peoples, and languages - Period of dynastic rule contributed to flowering of Hindu culture throughout much of the Indian subcontinent
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- Hinduism spread and many beliefs and practices associated with Hinduism were recognizable across different regions throughout the Indian subcontinent Caste - way of organizing work and ordering social life - families ranked on a hierarchichal scale of purity - Brahmins (priests) o High end of scale o Read Hindu scripts and perform Hindu rituals - Rulers, court officials, and soldiers were second category - Merchangts and traders, peasants, artisans were next - At the bottom were the untouchables who performed menial takss considered unclean or impure - These were broad categories and ther were specific subdivision (jati) within a given region - Jati o Determined rules, habits, and obligations of individuals o Defined the pool of eligible marriage partners within a region - NO OPPORTUNITY FOR UPWARD MOBILITY OR INTERMARRIAGE - Source of division paradoxically facilitated the crystallization of a south asian civilization by making the social structures of diverse communities recognizable thoughout India Hindu/Muslim - 80 percent of population hindu
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Textbook notes India - India Congress Party has monstly led...

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