ACEE219_Week2_new

ACEE219_Week2_new - ACEE ACEE 219 Environmental Chemistry...

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ACEE 219 Environmental Chemistry Week 2 March 9, 2010 novation Hall 127 ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 1 Innovation Hall 127
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ecture of the Last Week Lecture of the Last Week 1. Chemistry gives a foundation for understanding environmental engineering processes. gg p 2. Water molecule is a dipole and forms hydrogen bonds with electronegative atoms, which gives water anomalous fluid. 3. Human activities affect water compositions in rain, river, groundwater, and sea. 4. Mass, molar, and normal concentrations. ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 2
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CHAPTER 2. HEMICAL KINETICS CHEMICAL KINETICS ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 3
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hat is Kinetics? What is Kinetics? Chemical kinetics is the study of rates of chemical processes . Chemical kinetics deals with the experimental determination of reaction rates from which rate laws and rate constants are derived. SLOW!! FAST!! ttp://a espncdn com/photo/2008/0523/rpm i indy500 580 jpg ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 4 http://a.espncdn.com/photo/2008/0523/rpm_i_indy500_580.jpg
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ollisions of Reacting Species Collisions of Reacting Species Reactant particles must collide for a reaction to occur, but only a certain fraction of the total collisions have the energy to connect effectively and cause the reactants to transform into products. This is because only a portion of the molecules have enough energy and yp gg y the right orientation (or "angle") at the moment of impact to break any existing bonds and form new ones. (Wikipedia) ttp://upload wikimedia org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Molecular llisions jpg ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 5 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Molecular-collisions.jpg
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xpressing the Reaction Rates Expressing the Reaction Rates actants roducts A + 2B C + 2D reactants products Reaction Rate = = = - = - d[A] t d[B] t 1 d[C] t d[D] t 1 dt dt 2 dt dt 2 = -k[A] a [B] b [C] c [D] d where, [A], [B], [C], [D] : molar concentrations for A, B, C, and D, respectively a, b, c, d: constants k: reaction rate constant Reaction Order = a+b+c+d ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 6
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xample 2 Example 2 Example 2-1 NH 3 + HOCl NH 2 Cl + H 2 O Reaction Rate = ] k[HOCl][NH dt d[HOCl] 3 = (a) What is the overall reaction order? 2 k=5.1 x10 6 liter/mole/sec (b) What % decrease in reaction rate occurs if the concentration of each reactant is reduced by 50%? initial reaction rate = k[HOCl][NH ] 3 new reaction rate = k0.5[HOCl]0.5[NH 3 ] = 0.25 initial reaction rate ) Determine k when unit is changed to mg/L. (c) Determine k when unit is changed to mg/L. ] k[HOCl][NH dt d[HOCl] 3 = k’=k/(17x10 3 ) = 300 liter/mg/sec OCl) 0 2 46 3 ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 7 ( ) ( )( ) ) (NH 10 17 (HOCl) 10 52.46 k dt (HOCl) 10 52.46 d 3 3 3 × × = × Snoeyink & Jenkins Example 2-2
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ero Order Reaction Zero Order Reaction A products [A] Reaction Rate = = -k[A] n = -k[A] 0 = -k d[A] dt dt
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ACEE219_Week2_new - ACEE ACEE 219 Environmental Chemistry...

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