ACEE219_Week4_new - ACEE ACEE 219 Environmental Chemistry...

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ACEE 219 Environmental Chemistry Week 4 March 23, 2010 novation Hall 127 ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 1 Innovation Hall 127
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eview of the Last Class Review of the Last Class 1. Chemical equilibrium. 2. Gibbs free energy. o o o G K Q RTln RTlnQ RTlnK - RTlnQ Δ G Δ G o = + = + = alculation of K Δ G - xp( o Reactants i f, i i Products i f, i i ) G Δ v Σ ( ) G Δ v Σ ( Δ = 3. Calculation of K , . ) RT exp( K = 4. Calculation of equilibrium concentrations 5. Effect of temperature on K, . ) 1 1 ( Δ H K ln o 1 = ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 2 T T R K 1 2 2
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CHAPTER 4. CID ASE CHEMISTRY ACID-BASE CHEMISTRY ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 3
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he importance of Acid/Base The importance of Acid/Base ontrolling the dissolution and precipitation of solids Controlling the dissolution and precipitation of solids Altering the solubility of gases Catalyzing many other reactions Affecting the interactions of chemical with organisms Affecting the efficiencies of coagulation and softening Affecting the efficiencies of biological wastewater treatments Example: Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) vs. hypochlorite ion (OCl - ) ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 4
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ewer Pipe Corrosion Sewer Pipe Corrosion http://awmc.uq.edu.au/images/sewer/Corrosion1.jpg ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 5
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hat is Acid or Base? What is Acid or Base? Brönstead and Lowry definition cid a substance which can donate a hydrogen ion (proton) H + Acid : a substance which can donate a hydrogen ion (proton), H Base : a substance which can accept a hydrogen ion onjugate base of HCl HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl - cid 1 base 1 acid 2 base 2 Conjugate base of HCl Conjugate acid of CO 3 2- acid 1 base 1 acid 2 (simplified eq.) HCl H + + Cl - CO 3 2- + H 2 O OH - + HCO 3 - base 1 acid 1 base 2 acid 2 implified eq ) CO 2- H + HCO - ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 6 (simplified eq.) CO 3 + 3
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K a - A H HA + + + - 3 2 A O H O H HA + + + + eq eq eq a [HA] ] [A ] [H K = eq eq eq 3 a [HA] ] [A ] O [H K = Equilibrium constant for an acid = Acidity constant HCl H + + Cl - K a = 10 3 (pK a = -3) CH 3 COOH H + + CH 3 COO - K a = 10 -4.7 (pK a = 4.7) HOCl H + + OCl - K a = 10 -7.5 (pK a = 7.5) ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 7
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K b - B] HB H B + + - - 2 - H B] OH HB O H B + + eq eq - eq b ] [H ] [B [HB] K + = eq - eq eq b ] [B ] [OH [HB] K = Equilibrium constant for a base = Basicity constant NH 2 - + H + NH 3 K b = 10 9 (pK b = -9) O - H + HCO - 10 - .7 K 37) CO 3 2 + H 3 K b = 10 3.7 (pK b = 3.7) F - + H + HF K b = 10 -10.8 (pK b = 10.8) ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 8
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nd K K a and K b ] [CN ] [HCN][OH K ; OH HCN O H CN - b - 2 - = + + base conjugate acid [HCN] ] ][CN O [H K ; CN O H O H HCN 3 a - 3 2 = + + + + conjugate base acid CN CN][OH [] + K ] ][OH O [H [HCN] ] ][CN O [H ] [CN ] [HCN][OH K K w 3 3 - b a = = = + 14 pOH pH pK pK b a = + = + ACEE 219 Spring 2010 HDP 9
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trong Acid eak Base Strong Acid Strong Acid-Weak Base Weak Base Acid - logK a Conjugate - logK b = pK a Base = pK b HClO 4 HCl Perchloric acid Hydrochloric acid -7 -3 ClO 4 - Cl- Perchlorate ion Chloride ion 21 17 Strong acids HIO 3 CH 3 COOH Iodic acid Acetic acid 0.8 4.7 IO 3 - CH 3 COO - Iodate ion Acetate ion 13.2 9.3 HOCl Hypochlorous acid 7.5 OCl - Hypochlorite ion 6.4 H
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