Lec08b-review - COMP 4300 Computer Architecture Review Dr....

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1 COMP 4300 Computer Architecture Review Dr. Xiao Qin Auburn University http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~xqin xqin@auburn.edu Fall, 2010
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2 www.top500.org Nov. 2004 MEMORY BUS/CROSSBAR CPU CPU CPU CPU Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) CPU M CPU M CPU M CPU M PC PC PC network cluster MPP Cluster SMP Constellations SIMD Single processor Supercomputer Trends in Top 500
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3 Why Such Changes in 10 years? Performance Technology Advances CMOS VLSI dominates older technologies in cost and performance Computer architecture advances improves low-end RISC, superscalar, RAID, … Cost: Lower costs due to … Simpler development CMOS VLSI: smaller systems, fewer components Higher volumes CMOS VLSI : same dev. cost 10,000 vs. 10,000,000 units Lower margins by class of computer, due to fewer services Function Rise of networking/local interconnection technology
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4 Amazing Underlying Technology Change In 1965, Gordon Moore sketched out his prediction of the pace of silicon technology. Moore's Law : The number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 24 months. Decades later, Moore's Law remains true. From Intel
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5 Based on SPEED, the CPU has increased dramatically, but memory and disk have increased only a little . This has led to dramatic changed in architecture, Operating Systems, and programming practices. Why Study Computer Architecture Answer: Technology playing field is always changing Understand hardware for software tuning
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6 What is Computer Architecture ? The science and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance and cost goals. An analogy to architecture of buildings… SOFTWARE SOFTWARE
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7 Two notions of performance Plane Boeing 747 BAD/Sud Concodre Speed 610 mph 1350 mph DC to Paris 6.5 hours 3 hours Passengers 470 132 Throughput (pmph) 286,700 178,200 Which has higher performance? 1. Time to deliver 1 passenger? 2. Time to deliver 400 passengers?
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How to Measure Time? User actual elapsed time to complete particular task is only true basis for comparison sum of I/O time, User + System CPU, time spent on other tasks, boot time, etc. alternatives may mislead! CPU designer want measure relating to how fast processor hardware can perform basic functions ( CPU execution time )
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“Iron Triangle” of CPU Performance CPU execution time for program = Clock Cycles for program x Clock Cycle Time Substituting for clock cycles: CPU execution time for program = (Instruction Count x CPI) x Clock Cycle Time = Instruction Count x CPI x Clock Cycle Time CPI Instruction Count Clock Cycle Time
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10 CPU time = Seconds = Instructions x Cycles x Seconds Program Program Instruction Cycle CPU time = Seconds = Instructions x Cycles x Seconds Program Program Instruction Cycle Inst Count CPI Clock Rate Program X Compiler X (X) Inst. Set. X X Organization X X Technology X Final thoughts: Performance Equation
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Lec08b-review - COMP 4300 Computer Architecture Review Dr....

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