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Poli 260 - Week 6 (Lecture)

Poli 260 - Week 6 (Lecture) - Poli 260 THE IMPACT OF...

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Poli 260 THE IMPACT OF DOMESTIC POLITICS ON INTERNATIONAL POLITICS RECALL: - States pursue survival and security in an anarchic world - Uncertainty + offence = fear of CD - Why are we not all dead? Or why aren't we always at DD? - States have incentives to cooperate (CC > DD), providing the other state wants to cooperate too - Save costs from defecting (military) - Alliances: aim to deter challenger, but if not... - Defeat challenger (e.g. Germany) - International organizations (why do they exist at all [Keohane]?): - Lower costs of CC (transaction costs) - cheaper than negotiating deals - Reduce uncertainty by sharing information FOREIGN POLICY AND DOMESTIC POLITICS - Two visions of foreign policy: Roosevelt (realist) vs Wilson (liberal) Do domestic politics matter? - Roosevelt: no, only balance of power matters - Wilson: yes, democracies are peaceful (more peaceful than autocratic regimes) - Interest in promoting shared values of democracy around the world Should foreign policy be moral (should we care about things other than guns and bombs)? - Roosevelt: no, foreign policy should maximize power - Wilson: yes, foreign policy should promote moral values - Wilson: domestic politics (institutions + morality/ideology) matter What would John M. Say? - Wilson is foolish - Roosevelt is right - States should not care about domestic politics - But...in practise, states do consider domestic politics when designing foreign policy - E.g. Communism vs. capitalism - Does this make sense? - John says no - But can states be doing this for good reason? - Used to think domestic politics didn't matter because: - Structure (balance of power) was what drove state behaviour - All leaders would behave the same way, given a similar balance of power - States basing foreign policy on domestic politics were foolish (e.g. Cold War) How We Found Domestic Politics Mattered - Democracies were relatively uncommon - The few democracies that exited did fight wars just like everyone else - But as the number of democracies expanded, scholars noticed that while democracies fought non- democracies, democracies almost never fought each other Definitions - There are a range of regime-types Democracy : ruler not selected by watery tart - Free and competitive elections (i.e. govt can lose) - Wide franchise (range of people can vote - number of people to vote is not restricted) 1
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Poli 260 THE IMPACT OF DOMESTIC POLITICS ON INTERNATIONAL POLITICS - Leadership open beyond narrow elite (not restricted to a specific group) Liberal : ruler can't repress people in arbitrary fashion - Role of government to protect and allow individual liberty (with some boundaries) - When government infringes on an individual's rights, rule of law protects that individual from arbitrary treatment - Non-state liberal institutions (eg free press) - not controlled by state Liberal Democracy - Democracy (elections) + rule of law (individual rights, freedom of press/assembly) - E.g. Canada - Most autocracies are illiberal (e.g. Nazi Germany) - But you can have illiberal democracy - Have elections but without adequate rule of law - This happens in states with weak institutions (e.g. Kenya)
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