Poli 260 - Week 7 (Lecture)

Poli 260 - Week 7 (Lecture) - Poli 260 Week 7 Lecture...

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Poli 260 Week 7 Lecture October 18, 2011 Puzzle: Irrational States? - Would you expect a state to ban an activity that had been extremely profitable for its citizens and itself (through taxes)? - E.g. the slave trade o In 1700s, blacks seen as inferior o Slave colonies in Caribbean very profitable: sugar consumption up 80% between 1785-1805 (used to be a luxury item) o Despite this, slavery was banned in UK in 1807, and banned in its colonies in 1833 - Why would Britain ban slavery when the US, a rival, still allowed slavery? RECALL: - Realism: what does a realist care about? o Relative power: how many guns and bombs does the other guy have? o Economy (latent power): how many guns/bombs can I make? - Liberalism: what does a liberal care about? o Public interest o Regime-type: is the other guy a democrat or a degenerate dictator? o Audience costs: can I stay in power (i.e. can I avoid annoying powerful domestic/public interests?) - If UK’s rivals (e.g. U.S.) kept slavery, did banning it make the UK weaker or stronger, relative to rivals? o Prediction of realism: UK should keep slavery (concerned about relative position) - Did the slave trade benefit voting groups in the UK (e.g. businesses, consumers)? o Yes: interests in voting group to maintain slavery (cheaper labour) o Prediction of liberalism: UK should keep slavery - So why did the UK ban slavery? The ‘first human rights movement’ - Moral values over profit/power: o Have to look into sheer immorality of slavery o Bringing up the idea that RACES ARE EQUAL o Emphasize MORAL VALUES over state goals Movements were transnational – coalitions across national borders - Coalition: combination of interests o Have a common goal, have to join forces to attain that outcome o Ex-slaves o Religious groups (eg. Quakers) o Labour groups seeking to improve labor conditions - Transnational o Civil society groups collaborated across borders (e.g. Frederick Douglass travelled to UK) How do materially weaker actors (people who don’t have guns) change the policies of stronger entities like states? - ‘More people signed anti-slavery petitions than were eligible to vote in the UK’ - Can’t explain this by state interest or democratic politics - 2 new concepts: o Moral ideals, or norms o Activists (also called activist networks or transnational movements/actors) Norms - Definition: a standard of appropriate behaviour for actors within a specified group (recognized by other people) - You follow a norm because you expect OTHERS will follow it too - Two roots:
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Poli 260 Week 7 Lecture o Normative: what you should do o Normal: what you do regularly Functional vs. Normative Logics - Two logics (Finnemore and Sikkink, pg 912) o Logic of consequences: calculate the costs/benefits of your actions for yourself Individual costs/benefit (interest) Morally neutral o Logic of appropriateness: calculate whether your action is suitable/appropriate/accepted w/in your society Do OTHER people think this is right Social assessment/sanction (norm)
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Poli 260 - Week 7 (Lecture) - Poli 260 Week 7 Lecture...

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