lec24 - 24. Lecture 24 24.1 Nuclear Physics 24.1.1...

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24. Lecture 24 24.1 Nuclear Physics 24.1.1 Constituents and binding energy The atomic nucleus has a typical size of 10 15 m and therefore is much smaller than the typical atomic size 10 10 m . Using the uncertainty principle we expect then that the energies associated with the nucleus are much larger, of the order of MeV. The nucleus is composed of protons which are positively charged and neutrons which are electrically neutral. The total number of protons and neutrons is called the mass number and denoted by an A. The number of protons is called the atomic number and is denoted by a Z. The number of protons determines the charge and therefore the number of electrons of the corresponding atom and with that its chemical properties. Therefore Z gives the “name” to the nucleus. For example Carbon has six protons as depicted schematically in ±g.126. However the number of neutrons in Carbon can vary. In the picture we depicted Carbon fourteen written usually as 14 6 C .F o rexamp lethe rei sa l so Carbon twelve (the most common one). These are called isotopes, they have the same of protons but di²erent number of neutrons. The mass of the proton and neutron is approximately similar and equal to m p m n 1 . 6 × 10 27 Kg .T h u s ,t h em a s so ft h en u c l e u s i sg i v e nb yt h em a s sn um b e r A .On eimpo r tan tfa c ti stha ti fon em ea su r e sth ema s
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course PHY 219 taught by Professor Na during the Fall '11 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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lec24 - 24. Lecture 24 24.1 Nuclear Physics 24.1.1...

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