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Unformatted text preview: Psychological Development
Chapter 9 AP Psychology
Forest Grove High School
Mr. Tusow Meet the Two Jims
Meet Open your book to page 359 and look at the story of
Open the separated twin brothers named Jim.
the Are their similarities hereditary or luck?
Are More of a Coincidence
More Psychologists say that while some of the Jims’
Psychologists similarities are due to hereditary, many are not.
similarities If you took two strangers together who were born on
If the same day, in the same country and ask them to
find similarities, you might find a lot of astounding
coincidences. Identical Twins
Identical twins do show remarkable
Identical similarities, but only in characteristics
you would expect: intelligence,
temperament, gestures, posture and
pace of speech.
pace However, environment plays a big role
too. increase in age = greater difference in
personality Problems with Twin Studies
Problems Expectancy biases has proven to
Expectancy be a big challenge for these
studies. Investigators of identical twins
Investigators expect to find some hereditary
influences so they often pay more
attention to the similarities than
differences. Developmental Psychology
Developmental Developmental psychology is
Developmental the psychology of growth,
change and consistency
though the lifespan. Developmental psychology
Developmental looks at how thinking, feeling,
and behavior change
throughout a person’s life.
throughout It looks at three debates: Nature vs. Nurture Continuity vs. Discontinuity Stability vs. Change Nature vs. Nurture Issue
Nature Developmental psychology
Developmental seeks to answer two big
questions about heredity and
1. How much weight does each
2. How do they interact? Nature refers to the effects of
Nature heredity and nurture to the
influence of environment.
influence How to Study the Nature-Nurture
There are two effective
There ways to study natureways
nurture. Twin studies: Identical twins
Twin have the same genotype, and
fraternal twins have an average
of 50% of their genes in
common. Adoption studies: Similarities
Adoption with the biological family
support nature, while
similarities with the adoptive
family support nurture.
family Gradual vs. Abrupt Change
Think about how children become adults.
Think Is there a predictable pattern they follow
regarding thought and language and
social Do children go through gradual changes
Do or are they abrupt changes?
or Continuity View
Continuity The continuity view says that
The change is gradual. Children become more skillful in
Children thinking, talking or acting much
the same way as they get taller.
the We know that skilled behaviors
We often happen in this way as with
the trial and error method of
learning to walk or eat with a
spoon. (Observable skills…what
about mental processes?)
about Discontinuity View
Discontinuity The discontinuity view sees
The development as more abruptdevelopment
a succession of changes that
produce different behaviors
in different age-specific life
periods called stages.
periods This is evident in beginning
This readers who suddenly
discover the connection
between letters and sounds.
between Discontinuity View
Discontinuity We often hear people taking about children going through
We “stages” in life (i.e. “terrible twos.”)
“stages” These are called developmental stages-periods of life
-periods initiated by distinct transitions in physical or
psychological Psychologists of the discontinuity view believe that
Psychologists people go through the same stages, in the same order,
but not necessarily at the same rate.
but However, if a person misses a stage, it can have lasting
consequences. Capabilities of Newborns
Capabilities People used to think that
People newborns began life as a “blank
slate”-an empty brain and no
abilities. Tabula rasa Studies have shown that
Studies newborns have innate abilities
to find nourishment, interact
with others and avoid harmful
situations. Developmental Periods to
Know Prenatal Period: The developmental period before birth.
birth. Neonatal Period: Birth-1 month. Infancy: 1 month-18/24 months. Pages 367-369: Study these on your own Three Developmental Periods
Prenatal Period: 9 month developmental period before birth.
period During this time, the genetic plan determines how
During all of the organs that will be formed later begin to
form. Here we get differentiation (cells forming specific
organs). Before we differentiation, cells are “stem
cells” and are capable of forming into any organ in
the One concern during this time are teratogens, or
substances from the environment that can damage
the developing baby.
the A Tough Discussion
Tough Thirteen states can terminate parental rights if
Thirteen evidence of substance abuse exists during
pregnancy. Eight states require doctors to report if
evidence of parental substance abuse exists.
evidence How do you think the criminal justice system should
How deal with mothers who abuse drugs during pregnancy?
deal If states pursue offenders of this crime, how do you
think society, in general would be affected?
think Prenatal Stages of
• The fertilized egg
• Enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division
• Develops into an embryo
• The developing human organism from 2 weeks through
• The developing human organism from 9 weeks after
conception to birth
conception Three Developmental Periods
Neonatal Period: Birth to one month old.
old. During this stage babies are capable of responding
During to stimulation from all of their senses. Infancy Period: 1 mo. to 24 mo. This is a period of rapid development, but is still
This heavily reliant on reflexive behavior.
heavily Part of the reason we remember very little between
Part birth and age 3 ½ is that our brain circuits are not
fully developed Learning in Development
Learning During infancy, youngsters begin to exploit their
During abilities for learning.
abilities Crying, cooing, smiling, etc. Classical conditioning in newborns. Stroking forehead and giving sweets: Newborns who
Stroking were stroked on the forehead were classically
conditioned to turn their head toward the side where
the sweetened water was provided, even if the bottle of
water wasn’t present.
water Social Abilities
Social During infancy we also see babies engage in
During a lot of social interaction. Synchronicity: close coordination between
Synchronicity: the gazing, vocalizing, touching and smiling
of mothers and infants.
of Babies are preprogrammed to their mother’s
voice Babies are preprogrammed to recognize faces This is so strong that we will see infants
This engage in the same behavior as their mother.
engage Laugh when she laughs/cry when she displays
Laugh negative emotion.
Mimicking The idea that babies will mimic is not something that
The is unique to human babies.
is Makak Neonatal Imitation Attachment
Attachment During early development we
During also see attachment, or the
relationship between a child
and parent or caregiver.
and Attachment occurs
Attachment instinctively in many species.
One example in birds is called
imprinting where a powerful
attraction occurs between
infants and the first moving
object or individual they spend
Imprinting Example: A baby chick is
Example: hatched by a mother duck.
The chick will follow the
duck around and even try
to get into the pond with
the mother duck and her
ducklings. Dog and Duck Imprinting with Human
Babies While human babies are not as capable to move
While around at an early age, they will develop a strong
connection to anyone who responds regularly to
their signals-crying, cooing, smiling...etc. Just how Strong is
Imprinting? One study found that when mothers left the room, 2-4
One month old babies’ skin temperature dropped, a sign of
emotional distress. In these youngsters, skin temperature
dropped even more when the mother was replaced by a
stranger. In contrast, skin temperature remained constant steady if
In the mother stayed in the room-even if the stranger was
present. Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken
when placed in strange situations without their surrogate
mothers. Lasting Effects
Lasting Despite the strength of attachment and
Despite imprinting, individuals who lack healthy
attachments in infancy are not necessarily
doomed for life.
doomed While attachment problems are good predictors
While of later problems with social relationships, many
people do succeed in overcoming early
attachment issues. Contact Comfort
Contact Why do infants become
Why attached to parents?
attached Evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary explains attachment as a way to
safeguard an infants survival by
providing support and
protection. Through natural selection,
Through individuals with genetic
tendencies to “attach” will
survive, thrive and pass along Cupboard Theory
Cupboard Freud had convinced most
Freud doctors that young infants
and children were so
that the only thing of real
importance to infants was
the breast or the bottle.
the Cupboard Theory: Infants become attached to those who
provide the “cupboard”
containing the food supply.
containing Disproving Freud
Disproving Harry and Margaret Harlow thought
Harry physical contact was important to
child They conducted an experiment that
They used infant monkeys who had been
separated from their mothers at birth.
separated The monkeys had the choice between
The a wire monkey that provided milk (a
cupboard), and a cloth covered
monkey that provided only
stimulation from the soft cloth it was
made out of.
made Harry Harlow
and a test subject Harlow’s Monkeys
Harlow’s Harlow’s Research of “cupboard theory.” Harlow’s Findings
Harlow’s Infants need more than food, they need
Infants contact comfort too. A lack of close, loving
relationships in infancy even effects physical
growth. A study of children in emotionally detached
study family environments showed slower growth
and bone development. When removed from
such a situation they may grow again. If,
however they are placed back in the poor
environment, their growth is stunted once
again. This phenomenon is known as psychological
This dwarfism. Maturation
Maturation Maturation is the orderly sequence of biological
Maturation growth by which an organism develops over time,
both physically and mentally.
both Studies have shown that, when raised under
Studies adequate environment, maturation follows a
predictable Maturation sets the basic course of development,
Maturation experience adjusts it.
experience Nature and nurture at work. Cognitive Development: Piaget’s
Theory Jean Piaget developed a
Jean theory about development
called the Cognitive Theory of
Development. Piaget’s theory was a
Piaget’s discontinuous stage model of
development which said
children will undergo a
revolutionary change in
thought at each stage.
thought Cognitive Development Piaget’s
Theory Piaget’s theory was based on three key ideas: Schemas Assimilation and accommodation Stages of cognitive development Schemas are mental structures that guide thinking.
thinking. According to Piaget, they are also the building
According blocks of development. Schemas form and change as we develop and
organize our knowledge to deal with new
experiences and predict future events.
experiences Cognitive Development: Piaget’s
Theory Assimilation: process that modifies new
Assimilation: information to fit with existing schemas or
with what is already known.
with Babies suck on anything put in front of them as if it was a
bottle. Accommodation: process of restructuring or
Accommodation: modifying schemas to incorporate new
information. When a child learns that a butterfly is not a “bird.” Assimilation makes new information fit our existing
Assimilation view of the world. Accommodation changes our views
to fit new information.
to Piaget’s Stages: Sensorimotor Stage Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to age 2):
Sensorimotor children mostly give reflexive responses
with very little thinking involved.
with Stranger Anxiety, or fear of strangers, is
Stranger very common during this period (8
months). A major step in thinking happens by year
major two, the ability to make mental images of
objects, called mental representation.
mental This is the foundation of being able to problem
solve Piaget’s Stages: Sensorimotor
Stage Another key feature of this stage is object
Another permanence, or the knowledge that objects
exist independently of one’s own actions or
awareness. Object Permanence Piaget’s Stages: Preoperational
Stage Preoperational Stage (2 to 6/7 yeas of age): A
Preoperational stage marked by well-developed mental
representation and the use of language.
representation Despite these increased abilities, however, children still
cannot solve problems requiring logical thought, but they can
recognize when something is not right.
recognize Piaget’s Stages: Preoperational
Stage Piaget developed other key features of the preoperational
Piaget stage, including:
stage, Egocentrism: a self centered focus that causes children to see the world only in their
own Talking to child on phone Animistic thinking: believing inanimate objects have life and mental processes.
believing “Bad table” Centration: an inability to understand an event because the child focuses their
attention too narrowly. Moving objects closer together—now more or fewer items? Irreversibility: an inability to think through a series of events or steps and then reverse
course. Artificialism: believing all objects are made by people. Piaget’s Stages: Concrete Operational
Stage Concrete Operational
Concrete Stage (7 to 11 years):
child develops the
abilities of irreversibility,
conservation and mental
operations. Conservation: the principle that quantity remains the
same despite changes in
shape. Mental operations: the
Mental ability to solve problems by
manipulating images in
one’s own mind.
one’s Piaget’s Stages: Formal
Operational In Piaget’s final stage, formal operational stage, he
he says people begin to think about issues like being
more accepted by peers, and abstract issues like
love, fairness and our reason for existence.
love, Consists of 4 unique structural properties: Hypothetical reasoning Analogical/Abstract reasoning Deductive reasoning Reflective abilities Theory of Mind
Theory Theory of mind is the
Theory ability to infer
mental states, and know
they may be different
than our own. Piaget thought this did
Piaget not happen until around
age 8, but studies
suggest this actually
happens as young as
age 4 or 5.
age Testing Your Theory of
Mind Draw a capital letter E on your forehead. Did you draw it to look like an E from your point of
Did view, or an E from the point of view of someone
looking at you?
looking Most people will be egocentric and draw it from their
Most own perspective, rather than that of someone looking
at them, if they were made to feel Piaget’s Theory Graphically
Piaget’s Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive
of Stage Developmental
Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years Sensorimotor
Experiencing the world through
senses and actions (looking,
touching, mouthing) •Object permanence
•Stranger anxiety About 2 to 6 years Preoperational
with words and images
but lacking logical reasoning •Pretend play
•Language development About 7 to 11 years •Conservation
Thinking logically about concrete
events; grasping concrete analogies
and performing arithmetical operations About 12 through
adulthood Formal operational
Abstract reasoning •Abstract logic
moral reasoning Reflecting on Piaget
Reflecting Piaget remains one of the
Piaget most significant
psychologists in the history of
the science. While he may
have been a little off on the
ages for his stages, his
emphasis was more on the
sequence (order) of specific
milestones. Studies from around the world
Studies have confirmed that human
cognition unfolds basically in
the sequence that Piaget Jean Piaget
1896-1980 Lev Vygotsky
Lev Piaget’s emphasis on how the
Piaget’s child’s mind grows through
interaction with the physicl
environment is complemented
by Vygotsky’s emphasis on
how the child’s mind grows
through interaction with the
social Language is an important
Language ingredient in social mentoring
that provides the building
blocks for thinking. Lev Vygotsky
1896-1934 Zone of Proximal Development
Zone Vygotsky stated that a child
Vygotsky follows an adult's example and
gradually develops the ability to
do certain tasks without help or
assistance. Zone of proximal development
Zone presents it as “the distance
between the actual
developmental level as
determined by independent
problem solving and the level of
potential development as
determined through problem
solving under adult guidance,
or in collaboration with more
capable Erikson’s Theory of
Psychosocial Erik Erikson saw human
Erik development as a sequence of
psychosocial stages, defined by
common problems that emerge
throughout Erikson identified 8 stages, with
Erikson each bringing a new challenge. To
move onto the next stage of life,
the problem of the previous stage
must successfully be coped with.
must Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial
age Stage Description of Task Infancy
(1st year) Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants
develop a sense of basic trust. Toddler
(2nd year) Autonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and
do things for themselves, or they
doubt their abilities. Preschooler
(3-5 years) Initiative vs. guilt Elementary
(6 yearspuberty) Competence vs.
Children learn the pleasure of applying
themselves to tasks, or they feel
inferior. Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks
and carry out plans, or they feel
guilty about efforts to be independent. Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial
Stage Description of Task Adolescence
20’s) Identity vs. role
confusion Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by
testing roles and then integrating them to
form a single identity, or they become
confused about who they are. Young Adult
(20’s to early
40’s) Intimacy vs.
isolation Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate
love, or they feel socially isolated. Middle Adult
(40’s to 60’s) Generativity vs.
stagnation The middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family
and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult
(late 60’s and
up) Integrity vs.
despair When reflecting on his or her life, the older
adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or
failure. Erikson and Freud
Erikson Like Freud and many others, Erik Erikson
Like maintained that personality develops in a
predetermined order. Instead of focusing on sexual
development, however, he was interested in how
children socialize and how this affects their sense of
self. He saw personality as developing throughout the
He lifetime and looked at identity crises at the focal
point for each stage of human development.
point Erikson and Freud
Erikson Erikson Summarized
Erikson His model was a lifespan model of development, taking in
His 5 stages up to the age of 18 years and three in adulthood.
stages There is still plenty of room for continued growth and
There development throughout one’s life.
development According to the theory, successful completion of each
According stage results in a healthy personality and successful
interactions with others.
interactions Failure to complete a stage can result in a reduced ability
Failure to complete further stages and resulting in an unhealthy
personality and sense of self.
personality Stages can be resolved successfully at a later time. Criticisms of Erikson
Criticisms Critics of Erikson said his “research” was based
Critics on clinical observations and lacked rigorous
scientific Also, critics said it did not do enough to
Also, adequately capture the problems faced by girls
and Can you think of “problems” females face that do not
Can have a place in Erikson’s stages?
have Erikson’s Theory of Young
Adulthood The big challenge Erikson singles out for
The young adults is establishing close
relationships with other adults. The individual must resolve the conflict
The between wanting to establish closeness to
another and fearing the vulnerability and
risks such closeness can bring.
risks Making intimate commitments requires
Making compromising personal preferences,
accepting responsibilities and yielding
some privacy and independence.
some Erikson’s Deep Thought
Erikson’s Anything that isolates us from sources of social
Anything support-from a reliable network of friends and
family-puts us at risk for a host of physical ills,
mental problems, and even social pathologies.
mental We are social creatures and we need each others
We help to and support to be effective and healthy.
help Erikson on Relationships
Erikson We are social creatures and we need each others
We help to and support to be effective and healthy.
help Erikson said you must know who you are before you
Erikson can begin to love someone else and share your life
with that person.
with Social and Emotion
Development Part of the health and happiness of humans
Part derives from having healthy, happy, intimate
relationships with people.
relationships To go beyond the egocentric problem of
To young children, we must develop a theory of
mind Awareness that others may have beliefs, thoughts,
Awareness desires and emotions different from one’s own.
desires Why would theory of mind be important to
Why development and socialization? Parenting
Parenting Most styles of parenting fall into one of four distinct
Most styles that psychologists have found all around the
world. Authoritative Authoritarian Permissive
Permissive Uninvolved Parenting Styles (page 383)
Involvement Authority Autonomy Authoritative Parent is warm, attentive
and sensitive to child’s
needs and interests Parent makes reasonable
demands for the child’s
maturity level; explains/
enforces rules Parent permits child to
make decisions in accord
readiness Authoritarian Parent is cold and
degrades the child Parent is highly demanding;
may use coercion by yelling
commanding, criticizing and
reliance on punishment Parent makes most
decisions for the child;
rarely listens to child’s
viewpoint Permissive Parent is warm but may
spoil the child Parent makes few or no
demands-often out of
misplaced concern for
child’s self esteem Parent permits child to
make decisions before
the child is ready Uninvolved Parent is emotionally
Parent makes few of no
detached, withdrawn and demands-often lacking in
interest or expectations for
the child Parent is indifferent to
child’s decisions and
point of view. Results of Parenting
Results Does the type of parent you are matter? Research suggests that children or parents who were
Research authoritative tend to be confident, self-reliant,
enthusiastic and overall happier.
enthusiastic Children with authoritarian parents tend to be anxious
and insecure while those with permissive parents tend
to be immature, impulsive, dependant and demanding.
to Daycare: Bad or Good?
Daycare: Day cares are growing in size and number
Day in our country. There has also been a
growing feeling that daycares might have
averse effects on children.
averse Research has shown that most children
Research thrive in day care, especially socially.
However, a poor-quality daycare
experience can influence children to be
aggressive, depressed or otherwise
maladjusted. Leisure Time
Leisure U.S. children have more free time than children in
U.S. any other country.
any In nonindustrialized societies, children average 6
In hours of a day working at some sort of chores or
labor. The typical American child spends less than ½
The hour doing chores.
hour Effects of Chores
Effects While long hard work may teach discipline,
While responsibility and appreciation, there is little
evidence that it produces positive changes in
cognitive American children also spend less time doing
American school work than children in other developed
countries (though more than American children
did in the past).
did Leisure Time
Leisure A good portion of American children’s time is
good spent watching TV, talking on the phone, surfing
the internet, or “hanging out.”
the Many children spend the majority of their free
Many time in structured activities like clubs or sports
teams. Are our children spending their time
productively? Gender Differences
Gender It is clear that gender differences exist in
It children. The sexes tend to segregate
themselves, which is a pattern that holds true
across Girls tend to organize themselves in small,
Girls cooperative groups. Boys often form larger
groups that have a hierarchical structure.
groups Explanations for
Differences Evolutionary psychologists believe these gender
Evolutionary differences have an innate basis, which may be
related, in part to gender differences in
testosterone Social-cognitive psychologists believe children
Social-cognitive also learn gender roles and gender related
behaviors such as aggressiveness,
competitiveness or cooperation.
competitiveness Differences Between Then and
Now While most psychologists support Erikson’s
While thoughts on adult development, they realize
that young adults today face different
situations than they have in the past.
situations Today, many young adults live together before
Today, they are married. While this may be better in the
long run, individuals may struggle with identity
issues at the same time they are trying to deal
with intimacy issues.
with Psychology Beyond
Adulthood Until the last few years, there was little
Until psychological research done on
young adults, and almost none on
people past their mid 20s.
people Within the next 10 years, a big part of
Within our population will be made up of
baby boomers who are living longer
and encountering more issues
physically and psychologically than
any group before them. Aging Boomers
Aging Challenges Facing Adults
Challenges The transition from adolescence to young
The adulthood is marked by decisions about
advanced education, career and intimate
relationships. Freud thought adult development is driven by
Freud two basic needs: love and work. Abraham
Maslow described these needs as love and
belongingness. Other psychologists: social acceptance,
Other achievement and power as the basic needs of adult Challenges of Midlife
Challenges Erikson singled out generitivity, as the big
Erikson challenge facing middle aged adults. Generitivity is the process of making a
Generitivity commitment beyond oneself to family, work,
society or future generations.
society This is a crucial challenge of adults in their
This 30s, 40s and 50s.
30s, The good news is that most people do not
The actually undergo a true midlife crisis or
upheaval. Erikson’s Last Stage
Erikson’s The last stage of Erikson’s model deals
The with elderly people. The big challenge in this stage is egoThe
ego- integrity vs. despair. Erikson describes
this as the challenge to have a life we can
look back on and have no regrets about
and to enjoy a sense of wholeness.
and In the End
In Death is inevitable. It is something we will all
Death go through. But, do we go through it the
same According to Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, we do,
According in five stages. While we each experience the
stages differently, we will all go through the
Bargaining The Stages
The Denial- Refusing to believe the individual is sick. Anger- Displays anger that individual is sick. Bargaining- Making a deal, in return for a cure, they
Bargaining- will fulfill a promise.
will Depression- General depression affecting sleeping
Depression- and eating patterns.
and Acceptance-The realization that death is inevitable. Stages of Loss
Stages Giraffe in Quicksand video ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course PSYCH 111 taught by Professor Larson during the Fall '11 term at BYU.
- Fall '11