Ch 9 Notes Psychological Development

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Unformatted text preview: Psychological Development Psychological Chapter 9 AP Psychology Forest Grove High School Mr. Tusow Meet the Two Jims Meet Open your book to page 359 and look at the story of Open the separated twin brothers named Jim. the Are their similarities hereditary or luck? Are More of a Coincidence More Psychologists say that while some of the Jims’ Psychologists similarities are due to hereditary, many are not. similarities If you took two strangers together who were born on If the same day, in the same country and ask them to find similarities, you might find a lot of astounding coincidences. coincidences. Identical Twins Identical Identical twins do show remarkable Identical similarities, but only in characteristics you would expect: intelligence, temperament, gestures, posture and pace of speech. pace However, environment plays a big role However, too. too. increase in age = greater difference in increase personality personality Problems with Twin Studies Problems Expectancy biases has proven to Expectancy be a big challenge for these studies. studies. Investigators of identical twins Investigators expect to find some hereditary influences so they often pay more attention to the similarities than differences. Developmental Psychology Developmental Developmental psychology is Developmental the psychology of growth, change and consistency though the lifespan. Developmental psychology Developmental looks at how thinking, feeling, and behavior change throughout a person’s life. throughout It looks at three debates: Nature vs. Nurture Continuity vs. Discontinuity Stability vs. Change Nature vs. Nurture Issue Nature Developmental psychology Developmental seeks to answer two big questions about heredity and environment: environment: 1. How much weight does each How wield? wield? 2. How do they interact? Nature refers to the effects of Nature heredity and nurture to the influence of environment. influence How to Study the Nature-Nurture Interaction Interaction There are two effective There ways to study natureways nurture. Twin studies: Identical twins Twin have the same genotype, and fraternal twins have an average of 50% of their genes in common. common. Adoption studies: Similarities Adoption with the biological family support nature, while similarities with the adoptive family support nurture. family Gradual vs. Abrupt Change Gradual Think about how children become adults. Think Is there a predictable pattern they follow regarding thought and language and social development? social Do children go through gradual changes Do or are they abrupt changes? or Continuity View Continuity The continuity view says that The change is gradual. Children become more skillful in Children thinking, talking or acting much the same way as they get taller. the We know that skilled behaviors We often happen in this way as with the trial and error method of learning to walk or eat with a spoon. (Observable skills…what about mental processes?) about Discontinuity View Discontinuity The discontinuity view sees The development as more abruptdevelopment a succession of changes that succession produce different behaviors in different age-specific life periods called stages. periods This is evident in beginning This readers who suddenly discover the connection between letters and sounds. between Discontinuity View Discontinuity We often hear people taking about children going through We “stages” in life (i.e. “terrible twos.”) “stages” These are called developmental stages-periods of life These developmental -periods initiated by distinct transitions in physical or psychological functioning. psychological Psychologists of the discontinuity view believe that Psychologists people go through the same stages, in the same order, but not necessarily at the same rate. but However, if a person misses a stage, it can have lasting However, consequences. consequences. Capabilities of Newborns Capabilities People used to think that People newborns began life as a “blank slate”-an empty brain and no abilities. abilities. Tabula rasa Studies have shown that Studies newborns have innate abilities to find nourishment, interact with others and avoid harmful situations. situations. Developmental Periods to Know Know Prenatal Period: The developmental period before birth. birth. Neonatal Period: Birth-1 month. Infancy: 1 month-18/24 months. Pages 367-369: Study these on your own Three Developmental Periods Three Prenatal Period: 9 month developmental period before birth. period During this time, the genetic plan determines how During all of the organs that will be formed later begin to form. form. Here we get differentiation (cells forming specific Here organs). Before we differentiation, cells are “stem cells” and are capable of forming into any organ in the body. the One concern during this time are teratogens, or One teratogens or substances from the environment that can damage the developing baby. the A Tough Discussion Tough Thirteen states can terminate parental rights if Thirteen evidence of substance abuse exists during pregnancy. Eight states require doctors to report if evidence of parental substance abuse exists. evidence How do you think the criminal justice system should How deal with mothers who abuse drugs during pregnancy? deal If states pursue offenders of this crime, how do you If think society, in general would be affected? think Prenatal Stages of Development Development • Zygote • The fertilized egg • Enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division • Develops into an embryo • Embryo • The developing human organism from 2 weeks through The 2nd month • Fetus • The developing human organism from 9 weeks after The conception to birth conception Three Developmental Periods Three Neonatal Period: Birth to one month old. old. During this stage babies are capable of responding During to stimulation from all of their senses. Infancy Period: 1 mo. to 24 mo. This is a period of rapid development, but is still This heavily reliant on reflexive behavior. heavily Part of the reason we remember very little between Part birth and age 3 ½ is that our brain circuits are not fully developed Learning in Development Learning During infancy, youngsters begin to exploit their During abilities for learning. abilities Crying, cooing, smiling, etc. Classical conditioning in newborns. Stroking forehead and giving sweets: Newborns who Stroking were stroked on the forehead were classically conditioned to turn their head toward the side where the sweetened water was provided, even if the bottle of water wasn’t present. water Social Abilities Social During infancy we also see babies engage in During a lot of social interaction. Synchronicity: close coordination between Synchronicity: the gazing, vocalizing, touching and smiling of mothers and infants. of Babies are preprogrammed to their mother’s Babies voice voice Babies are preprogrammed to recognize faces This is so strong that we will see infants This engage in the same behavior as their mother. engage Laugh when she laughs/cry when she displays Laugh negative emotion. negative Mimicking Mimicking The idea that babies will mimic is not something that The is unique to human babies. is Makak Neonatal Imitation Attachment Attachment During early development we During also see attachment, or the attachment, enduring social-emotional relationship between a child and parent or caregiver. and Attachment occurs Attachment instinctively in many species. One example in birds is called imprinting where a powerful imprinting attraction occurs between infants and the first moving object or individual they spend time with. time Imprinting Imprinting Example: A baby chick is Example: hatched by a mother duck. The chick will follow the duck around and even try to get into the pond with the mother duck and her ducklings. ducklings. Dog and Duck Imprinting with Human Babies Babies While human babies are not as capable to move While around at an early age, they will develop a strong connection to anyone who responds regularly to their signals-crying, cooing, smiling...etc. Just how Strong is Imprinting? Imprinting? One study found that when mothers left the room, 2-4 One month old babies’ skin temperature dropped, a sign of emotional distress. In these youngsters, skin temperature dropped even more when the mother was replaced by a stranger. stranger. In contrast, skin temperature remained constant steady if In the mother stayed in the room-even if the stranger was present. present. Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken Monkeys when placed in strange situations without their surrogate mothers. mothers. Lasting Effects Lasting Despite the strength of attachment and Despite imprinting, individuals who lack healthy attachments in infancy are not necessarily doomed for life. doomed While attachment problems are good predictors While of later problems with social relationships, many people do succeed in overcoming early attachment issues. Contact Comfort Contact Why do infants become Why attached to parents? attached Evolutionary psychology Evolutionary explains attachment as a way to safeguard an infants survival by providing support and protection. Through natural selection, Through individuals with genetic tendencies to “attach” will survive, thrive and pass along Cupboard Theory Cupboard Freud had convinced most Freud doctors that young infants and children were so mentally underdeveloped that the only thing of real importance to infants was the breast or the bottle. the Cupboard Theory: Infants become attached to those who provide the “cupboard” containing the food supply. containing Disproving Freud Disproving Harry and Margaret Harlow thought Harry physical contact was important to child development. child They conducted an experiment that They used infant monkeys who had been separated from their mothers at birth. separated The monkeys had the choice between The a wire monkey that provided milk (a cupboard), and a cloth covered monkey that provided only stimulation from the soft cloth it was made out of. made Harry Harlow and a test subject Harlow’s Monkeys Harlow’s Harlow’s Research of “cupboard theory.” Harlow’s Findings Harlow’s Infants need more than food, they need Infants contact comfort too. A lack of close, loving contact relationships in infancy even effects physical growth. A study of children in emotionally detached study family environments showed slower growth and bone development. When removed from such a situation they may grow again. If, however they are placed back in the poor environment, their growth is stunted once again. This phenomenon is known as psychological This dwarfism. Maturation Maturation Maturation is the orderly sequence of biological Maturation growth by which an organism develops over time, both physically and mentally. both Studies have shown that, when raised under Studies adequate environment, maturation follows a predictable pattern. predictable Maturation sets the basic course of development, Maturation experience adjusts it. experience Nature and nurture at work. Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory Theory Jean Piaget developed a Jean theory about development called the Cognitive Theory of Development. Piaget’s theory was a Piaget’s discontinuous stage model of discontinuous development which said children will undergo a revolutionary change in thought at each stage. thought Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory Theory Piaget’s theory was based on three key ideas: Schemas Assimilation and accommodation Stages of cognitive development Schemas are mental structures that guide thinking. thinking. According to Piaget, they are also the building According blocks of development. Schemas form and change as we develop and Schemas organize our knowledge to deal with new experiences and predict future events. experiences Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory Theory Assimilation: process that modifies new Assimilation: information to fit with existing schemas or with what is already known. with Babies suck on anything put in front of them as if it was a Babies bottle. bottle. Accommodation: process of restructuring or Accommodation: modifying schemas to incorporate new information. information. When a child learns that a butterfly is not a “bird.” Assimilation makes new information fit our existing Assimilation view of the world. Accommodation changes our views to fit new information. to Piaget’s Stages: Sensorimotor Stage Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to age 2): Sensorimotor children mostly give reflexive responses with very little thinking involved. with Stranger Anxiety, or fear of strangers, is Stranger very common during this period (8 months). months). A major step in thinking happens by year major two, the ability to make mental images of objects, called mental representation. mental This is the foundation of being able to problem This solve solve Piaget’s Stages: Sensorimotor Stage Another key feature of this stage is object Another permanence, or the knowledge that objects exist independently of one’s own actions or awareness. awareness. Object Permanence Piaget’s Stages: Preoperational Stage Preoperational Stage (2 to 6/7 yeas of age): A Preoperational stage marked by well-developed mental representation and the use of language. representation Despite these increased abilities, however, children still Despite cannot solve problems requiring logical thought, but they can recognize when something is not right. recognize Piaget’s Stages: Preoperational Stage Stage Piaget developed other key features of the preoperational Piaget stage, including: stage, Egocentrism: a self centered focus that causes children to see the world only in their Egocentrism: own terms. own Talking to child on phone Animistic thinking: believing inanimate objects have life and mental processes. Animistic believing “Bad table” Centration: an inability to understand an event because the child focuses their Centration: attention too narrowly. Moving objects closer together—now more or fewer items? Irreversibility: an inability to think through a series of events or steps and then reverse Irreversibility: course. course. Artificialism: believing all objects are made by people. Piaget’s Stages: Concrete Operational Stage Concrete Operational Concrete Stage (7 to 11 years): child develops the abilities of irreversibility, conservation and mental operations. operations. Conservation: the principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape. shape. Mental operations: the Mental ability to solve problems by manipulating images in one’s own mind. one’s Piaget’s Stages: Formal Operational Operational In Piaget’s final stage, formal operational stage, he In formal he says people begin to think about issues like being more accepted by peers, and abstract issues like love, fairness and our reason for existence. love, Consists of 4 unique structural properties: Hypothetical reasoning Analogical/Abstract reasoning Deductive reasoning Reflective abilities Theory of Mind Theory Theory of mind is the Theory ability to infer (understand) other’s mental states, and know they may be different than our own. Piaget thought this did Piaget not happen until around age 8, but studies suggest this actually happens as young as age 4 or 5. age Testing Your Theory of Mind Mind Draw a capital letter E on your forehead. Did you draw it to look like an E from your point of Did view, or an E from the point of view of someone looking at you? looking Most people will be egocentric and draw it from their Most own perspective, rather than that of someone looking at them, if they were made to feel Piaget’s Theory Graphically Piaget’s Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Piaget’s Development Development Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years Sensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) •Object permanence •Stranger anxiety About 2 to 6 years Preoperational Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning •Pretend play •Egocentrism •Language development About 7 to 11 years •Conservation Concrete operational •Mathematical Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies transformations and performing arithmetical operations About 12 through adulthood Formal operational Abstract reasoning •Abstract logic •Potential for moral reasoning Reflecting on Piaget Reflecting Piaget remains one of the Piaget most significant psychologists in the history of the science. While he may have been a little off on the ages for his stages, his emphasis was more on the sequence (order) of specific milestones. milestones. Studies from around the world Studies have confirmed that human cognition unfolds basically in the sequence that Piaget Jean Piaget 1896-1980 Lev Vygotsky Lev Piaget’s emphasis on how the Piaget’s child’s mind grows through interaction with the physicl environment is complemented by Vygotsky’s emphasis on how the child’s mind grows through interaction with the social environment. social Language is an important Language ingredient in social mentoring that provides the building blocks for thinking. Lev Vygotsky 1896-1934 Zone of Proximal Development Zone Vygotsky stated that a child Vygotsky follows an adult's example and gradually develops the ability to do certain tasks without help or assistance. Zone of proximal development Zone presents it as “the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers” capable Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Psychosocial Erik Erikson saw human Erik development as a sequence of psychosocial stages, defined by common problems that emerge throughout life. throughout Erikson identified 8 stages, with Erikson each bringing a new challenge. To move onto the next stage of life, the problem of the previous stage must successfully be coped with. must Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Development Approximate age Stage Description of Task Infancy (1st year) Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust. Toddler (2nd year) Autonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities. Preschooler (3-5 years) Initiative vs. guilt Elementary (6 yearspuberty) Competence vs. Children learn the pleasure of applying inferiority themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior. Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Development Approximate age Stage Description of Task Adolescence (teens into 20’s) Identity vs. role confusion Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adult (20’s to early 40’s) Intimacy vs. isolation Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated. Middle Adult (40’s to 60’s) Generativity vs. stagnation The middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult (late 60’s and up) Integrity vs. despair When reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure. Erikson and Freud Erikson Like Freud and many others, Erik Erikson Like maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order. Instead of focusing on sexual development, however, he was interested in how children socialize and how this affects their sense of self. self. He saw personality as developing throughout the He lifetime and looked at identity crises at the focal point for each stage of human development. point Erikson and Freud Erikson Erikson Summarized Erikson His model was a lifespan model of development, taking in His 5 stages up to the age of 18 years and three in adulthood. stages There is still plenty of room for continued growth and There development throughout one’s life. development According to the theory, successful completion of each According stage results in a healthy personality and successful interactions with others. interactions Failure to complete a stage can result in a reduced ability Failure to complete further stages and resulting in an unhealthy personality and sense of self. personality Stages can be resolved successfully at a later time. Criticisms of Erikson Criticisms Critics of Erikson said his “research” was based Critics on clinical observations and lacked rigorous scientific method. scientific Also, critics said it did not do enough to Also, adequately capture the problems faced by girls and women. and Can you think of “problems” females face that do not Can have a place in Erikson’s stages? have Erikson’s Theory of Young Adulthood Adulthood The big challenge Erikson singles out for The young adults is establishing close relationships with other adults. The individual must resolve the conflict The between wanting to establish closeness to another and fearing the vulnerability and risks such closeness can bring. risks Making intimate commitments requires Making compromising personal preferences, accepting responsibilities and yielding some privacy and independence. some Erikson’s Deep Thought Erikson’s Anything that isolates us from sources of social Anything support-from a reliable network of friends and family-puts us at risk for a host of physical ills, mental problems, and even social pathologies. mental We are social creatures and we need each others We help to and support to be effective and healthy. help Erikson on Relationships Erikson We are social creatures and we need each others We help to and support to be effective and healthy. help Erikson said you must know who you are before you Erikson can begin to love someone else and share your life with that person. with Social and Emotion Development Development Part of the health and happiness of humans Part derives from having healthy, happy, intimate relationships with people. relationships To go beyond the egocentric problem of To young children, we must develop a theory of mind mind Awareness that others may have beliefs, thoughts, Awareness desires and emotions different from one’s own. desires Why would theory of mind be important to Why development and socialization? Parenting Parenting Most styles of parenting fall into one of four distinct Most styles that psychologists have found all around the world. world. Authoritative Authoritarian Permissive Permissive Uninvolved Parenting Styles (page 383) (page Style Emotional Involvement Authority Autonomy Authoritative Parent is warm, attentive and sensitive to child’s needs and interests Parent makes reasonable demands for the child’s maturity level; explains/ enforces rules Parent permits child to make decisions in accord with developmental readiness Authoritarian Parent is cold and rejecting; frequently degrades the child Parent is highly demanding; may use coercion by yelling commanding, criticizing and reliance on punishment Parent makes most decisions for the child; rarely listens to child’s viewpoint Permissive Parent is warm but may spoil the child Parent makes few or no demands-often out of misplaced concern for child’s self esteem Parent permits child to make decisions before the child is ready Uninvolved Parent is emotionally Parent makes few of no detached, withdrawn and demands-often lacking in inattentive interest or expectations for the child Parent is indifferent to child’s decisions and point of view. Results of Parenting Results Does the type of parent you are matter? Research suggests that children or parents who were Research authoritative tend to be confident, self-reliant, enthusiastic and overall happier. enthusiastic Children with authoritarian parents tend to be anxious Children and insecure while those with permissive parents tend to be immature, impulsive, dependant and demanding. to Daycare: Bad or Good? Daycare: Day cares are growing in size and number Day in our country. There has also been a growing feeling that daycares might have averse effects on children. averse Research has shown that most children Research thrive in day care, especially socially. However, a poor-quality daycare experience can influence children to be aggressive, depressed or otherwise maladjusted. Leisure Time Leisure U.S. children have more free time than children in U.S. any other country. any In nonindustrialized societies, children average 6 In hours of a day working at some sort of chores or labor. labor. The typical American child spends less than ½ The hour doing chores. hour Effects of Chores Effects While long hard work may teach discipline, While responsibility and appreciation, there is little evidence that it produces positive changes in cognitive development. cognitive American children also spend less time doing American school work than children in other developed countries (though more than American children did in the past). did Leisure Time Leisure A good portion of American children’s time is good spent watching TV, talking on the phone, surfing the internet, or “hanging out.” the Many children spend the majority of their free Many time in structured activities like clubs or sports teams. teams. Are our children spending their time Are productively? productively? Gender Differences Gender It is clear that gender differences exist in It children. The sexes tend to segregate themselves, which is a pattern that holds true across cultures. across Girls tend to organize themselves in small, Girls cooperative groups. Boys often form larger groups that have a hierarchical structure. groups Explanations for Differences Differences Evolutionary psychologists believe these gender Evolutionary differences have an innate basis, which may be related, in part to gender differences in testosterone levels. testosterone Social-cognitive psychologists believe children Social-cognitive also learn gender roles and gender related behaviors such as aggressiveness, competitiveness or cooperation. competitiveness Differences Between Then and Now Now While most psychologists support Erikson’s While thoughts on adult development, they realize that young adults today face different situations than they have in the past. situations Today, many young adults live together before Today, they are married. While this may be better in the long run, individuals may struggle with identity issues at the same time they are trying to deal with intimacy issues. with Psychology Beyond Adulthood Adulthood Until the last few years, there was little Until psychological research done on young adults, and almost none on people past their mid 20s. people Within the next 10 years, a big part of Within our population will be made up of baby boomers who are living longer and encountering more issues physically and psychologically than any group before them. Aging Boomers Aging Challenges Facing Adults Challenges The transition from adolescence to young The adulthood is marked by decisions about advanced education, career and intimate relationships. relationships. Freud thought adult development is driven by Freud two basic needs: love and work. Abraham Maslow described these needs as love and belongingness. belongingness. Other psychologists: social acceptance, Other achievement and power as the basic needs of adult Challenges of Midlife Challenges Erikson singled out generitivity, as the big Erikson challenge facing middle aged adults. Generitivity is the process of making a Generitivity commitment beyond oneself to family, work, society or future generations. society This is a crucial challenge of adults in their This 30s, 40s and 50s. 30s, The good news is that most people do not The actually undergo a true midlife crisis or upheaval. Erikson’s Last Stage Erikson’s The last stage of Erikson’s model deals The with elderly people. The big challenge in this stage is egoThe ego- integrity vs. despair. Erikson describes this as the challenge to have a life we can look back on and have no regrets about and to enjoy a sense of wholeness. and In the End In Death is inevitable. It is something we will all Death go through. But, do we go through it the same way? same According to Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, we do, According in five stages. While we each experience the stages differently, we will all go through the following: following: Denial Anger Anger Bargaining Bargaining The Stages The Denial- Refusing to believe the individual is sick. Anger- Displays anger that individual is sick. Bargaining- Making a deal, in return for a cure, they Bargaining- will fulfill a promise. will Depression- General depression affecting sleeping Depression- and eating patterns. and Acceptance-The realization that death is inevitable. Stages of Loss Stages Giraffe in Quicksand video ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course PSYCH 111 taught by Professor Larson during the Fall '11 term at BYU.

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