Ch 7 Notes Cognition (memory)2

Ch 7 Notes Cognition (memory)2 - Chapter7 APPsychology...

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Chapter 7 AP Psychology Mr. Tusow
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Memory: A system that encodes, stores and  retrieves information. While we are  learning more about  memory every day,  psychologists still are  unsure exactly what  parts of the brain are  involved and where it  is all stored.
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According to the  information-processing  model , the human brain takes essentially  meaningless information and turns it into  meaningful patterns. It does this through three steps: Encoding Storage Retrieval
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Encoding:  the modification of information to fit  the preferred format for the memory system. In most cases, encoding is automatic and  happens without our awareness. Other encoding,  however, like these notes, require extra encoding  effort called  elaboration  to make the memory  useful.
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20 15 10 5 0 8 16 24 32 42 53 64 Time in minutes taken to relearn list on day 2 Number of repetitions of list on day 1 Using 16 unrelated 3 letter sequences The more time we spend learning novel information, the more we remember.
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When we are exposed to stimuli and encode  information, we do it in three ways: 1. Semantic Encoding encoding of meaning including meaning of words 1. Acoustic Encoding encoding of sound especially sound of words 1. Visual Encoding encoding of picture images
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Processing a word by its meaning (semantic encoding) produces better recognition of it lat a later time.
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Storage:  the retention of encoding material  over time. In terms of storing material, we have three stages  of memory Sensory Memory Working Memory (short-term memory) Long-term Memory
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One physical change in the brain during memory  storage is in the synapses.  Memories begin as impulses whizzing through the  brain circuits, leaving a semi-permanent trace. The more a memory is utilized, the more potential  strength that neuron has, called long-term  potentiation. Neural basis for learning and remembering  associations This stuff gets super complicated…keep it simple for now
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Research suggests that the best way to  remember things is to study them and then sleep! Once LTP has occurred, even passing an  electrical current through the brain will not erase  well stored memories. More recent memories will be be wiped out People who have a concussion and cannot remember  what happened just before or after the injury have not  had a chance to “consolidate” their memories to the  long-term
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Retrieval: The locating and recovering of  information from memory. While some memories return to us in a split 
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course PSYCH 111 taught by Professor Larson during the Fall '11 term at BYU.

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Ch 7 Notes Cognition (memory)2 - Chapter7 APPsychology...

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