Ch 2 Notes Research Methods

Ch 2 Notes Research Methods - AP Psychology Forest Grove...

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AP Psychology Forest Grove High School Mr. Tusow
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Clever Hans the horse could do simple math and spell out the answers to simple questions. He wasn’t always correct, but he was most of the time. While a team of scientists, veterinarians, zoologists and circus trainers could not figure out how Hans was correctly answer the questions, Oskar Pfungst, a psychologist did. What did he discover?
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While Hans could not do math or correctly answer questions on his own, he was very perceptive. Hans was picking up on subtle body language given off by his owner who asked the questions. When the owner was hidden from view, suddenly Hans could not answer the questions correctly. How does this story relate to methodology?
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Emily Rosa was a 4 th grader in Colorado in 1998. She entered a science competition with an experiment that challenged the legitimacy of therapeutic touch (TT). We will use Rosa’s experiment to look at scientific method.
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The scientific method is a 5 step process for empirical investigation of a hypothesis, under conditions designed to control biases and subjective judgments. Empirical investigation is the collecting of objective information, firsthand, by making careful measurements based on direct experience.
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The goal of psychology is to develop explanations for behavior and mental processes…explain why we do what we do. These explanations, based on solid empirical studies are called theories . A theory is a testable explanation for a set of facts or observations.
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1. Developing a Hypothesis: Hypothesis: A statement predicting the outcome of a scientific study or describing the relationship among variables in a study. A hypothesis literally means a little theory.
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The 5 Steps of Scientific Method All hypotheses must be testable and falsifiable , or shown to be either supported or incorrect. Falsifiability is the possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or experiment. That something is "falsifiable" does not mean it is false; rather, that if it is false, then this can be shown by observation or experiment. A theory cannot be considered scientific if it does not admit the possibility of being shown false.
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All good hypotheses need an operational definition . An operational definition is a specific description of the concepts involving the conditions of the scientific study. Operational definitions are stated in terms of how the concepts are to be measured or what the operations are being employed to produce them.
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2. Performing a controlled test: A hypothesis must undergo rigorous tests before it will be accepted as a legitimate theory. To make a test controlled, one must account for the
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Ch 2 Notes Research Methods - AP Psychology Forest Grove...

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