ch02 - Chapter Two Stage Theories of Development Overview...

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Chapter Two Stage Theories of Development
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Overview Erikson: Psychosocial development Piaget: Cognitive development Vygotsky: Cognitive development Using technology to promote cognitive development Piaget, Kohlberg, & Gilligan: Moral development
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Erikson: Basic Principles Epigenetic principle Idea that development progresses through a series of interrelated stages and that each stage has a critical period of development Psychosocial crisis Turning points; conflict between opposing psychological qualities
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Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development Trust vs. mistrust (birth to 1 year) Initiative vs. guilt (4 to 5 years) Industry vs. inferiority (6 to 11 years) Identity vs. role confusion (12 to 18 years) Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood) Generativity vs. stagnation (middle adulthood) Integrity vs. despair (older adulthood)
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Marcia: Identity Statuses Identity Diffusion: No crisis; no commitment; little self-direction, impulsive, and low self-esteem Foreclosure: No crisis; commitment made; close-minded and accepts and endorses parental choices and values Moratorium: Crisis experienced; no commitment; anxious, changes major often, and often dissatisfied Identity Achievement: Crisis experienced; commitment made; introspective, planful, logical, and high self-esteem
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Marcia: Identity Statuses Chart Achievement Commitment Yes No Crisis Yes No Moratorium Foreclosure Diffusion
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Erikson: Criticisms Based on personal and subjective
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ch02 - Chapter Two Stage Theories of Development Overview...

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