2BrainEnhanced

2BrainEnhanced - Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 2...

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Unformatted text preview: Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 2 Neuroscience, Genetics and Behavior James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers Neural Communication Biological Psychology branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists Neuron a nerve cell the basic building block of the nervous system Neural Communication Dendrite the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body Axon the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands Myelin [MY-uh-lin] Sheath a layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons enables vastly greater transmission speed of neutral impulses Neural Communication Neural Communication Action Potential a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane Threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse Neural Communication Cell body end of axon Direction of neural impulse: toward axon terminals Neural Communication Synapse [SIN-aps] junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons when released by the sending neuron, neuro- transmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether it will generate a neural impulse Neural Communication Neural Communication Serotonin Pathways Dopamine Pathways Neural Communication Neural Communication Acetylcholine [ah-seat-el-KO-leen] a neurotransmitter that, among its functions, triggers muscle contraction Endorphins [en-DOR-fins] “morphine within” natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure Neural Communication Neurotransmitter molecule Receiving cell membrane Receptor site on receiving neuron Agonist mimics neurotransmitter Antagonist blocks neurotransmitter The Nervous System Nervous System the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system consists of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems Central Nervous System (CNS)...
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course PSYCH 111 taught by Professor Larson during the Fall '11 term at BYU.

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2BrainEnhanced - Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 2...

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