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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 320 Fall 2011 Exam 1 Study Guide Know the important terms oat the end of each chapter Chapter 1 1a-Describe/explain the three basic issues in development. Give examples for each.-is development continuous or discontinuous, does one course of development characterize all children, and nature versus nurture. 1b- Why is it incorrect to refer to behavioral traits in development as either nature or nurture? What do we mean when we say that something is heritable? Why is that a question that depends on the population that is sampled? What evidence is there that the term heritability is archaic? Hint: how heritable is alcoholism in Detroit vs Provo? Heritability is proportion of phenotype explained by the gene 1c-Compare and contrast Freud, Erikson, Piaget, Bandura, and Skinner on their theories of development. Piaget: cognitive- developmental theory- children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world [discontinuous, one course, both nature and nurture] a. Sensorimotor > 0-2 years b. Preoperational > 2-7 years c. Concrete operational > 7-11 years d. Formal operational > 11 and up Freud- psychosexual theory, id, ego, superego, drives [ Erikson- psychosocial theory- the ego makes a positive contribution to development, acquiring skills that make the individual an active, contributing member of society, Culture emphasized 1d- Describe historical influences on the study of child development. Medieval- childhood is separate phase of development, parent is responsible, govt must protect 16 th c- original sin, puritan child depravity views, children are miniature adults 17 th c- John locke- tabula rasa- neutral view of childhood, children become what we make them. 18 th c- Rousseau- noble savages- positive view of childhood, able to civilize children+ 2-Describe three theories of human evolution. Describe the contributions of evolutionary thinking and ethology to developmental psych. How does Evolutionary Psychology aid us in understanding a wide variety of human developmental issues. e. Soup > repetitive recipes with slight variations depending upon situation f. Brick > priesthood power g. Master geneticist > zap a gene here, zap a gene there h. Evolutionary theory: natural selection and survival of the fittest i. Normative approach: Hall and Gesell composed age related averages based on large numbers of children j. Mental testing movement: Binet and Simon (IQ test) 3-Describe the methods and what can be characterized using developmental cognitive neuroscience. It brings together researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing...
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