Study Guide 320 EXAM 3, F11 Higley/Sorenson
Make sure you review the bold/key terms in the textbook for each chapter
How does the body change in terms of size, proportions, and skeletal maturity during
early childhood? How is physical growth a synchronous and an asynchronous
Body growth slows, lose baby fat because they learn to walk, 2 to 3 inches in height
and 5 pounds in weight each year, torso lengthens and widens, spine straightens, by
age 5 body proportions are similar to adults,
Asynchronies: brain and lymph nodes grow fastest
Describe the process of physical growth including bones, teeth, and other systems
outlined in the chapter. How are boys and girls different? What can go wrong and
what can be done to prevent or treat it? How is Utah different from other state with
regard to dental care, why?
boys slightly larger, girls retain more body fat
Bone: epiphysis=cartilage, lengthens and grows, growth plate- cartilage turns to bone,
45 new epiphysis emerge
Teeth- by age 3 baby has all teeth
Tooth decay- most US cities have fluorinated water preventing cavities, Utah does not
Review figures 8.2 & 8.3. Why would expect these peaks in growth or density?
Outline in sequence the process of brain growth.
Density of synapses in auditory/broca’s, Wernicke’s areas rise sharply during the
first 3 years – rapidly developing language skills, as a result of pruning, density
falls during the late preschool
and school years. During this time, plasticity of
cerebral cortex is reduced.
Rich growth of cerebellum from 3-6 years (going to school/learning, motor
control/balance). Fibers from reticular formation (attention) myelinated into
adolescence. Hippocampus (memory) grows extensively from age 3. Corpus
callosum peaks at ages 3-6 years (use of multiple areas of brain to solve complex
tasks, smooth coordination of movements from both sides of body).
Describe the development of the brain across different areas and across ages during
Brain from 70 to 90 percent of its adult weight, overproduction of synapses, cognitive
functions localize to different areas of brain (not entirely the cerebral cortex),
What role does apoptosis, synaptic pruning, and myelination play in brain
development? How is the development of the cerebral cortex related to motor
Cerebral cortex- connections between the cerebellum and cerebral cortex support
thinking and motor coordination
Be prepared to describe or answer questions concerning the relationship of the brain
to behaviors in the other 2 chapters? What do we mean by plasticity and sensitive
How does heredity influence physical growth? What are the best predictors of
eventual size? What is psychosocial dwarfism?