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lecture_Ch07_1[1] - Drugs and Behavior Alcohol(Ethanol part...

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Drugs and Behavior Alcohol (Ethanol) – part I PSY 291
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Alcohol as a Drug Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that is a CNS depressant . Alcohol is the second most widely used and abused of all psychoactive drugs.
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Alcohol as a Drug Alcohol is an addictive drug. Of the approximately 2 million receiving treatment for drug abuse, 64% are being treated for alcoholism. Social psychologists refer to the perception of alcohol as a social lubricant. Four reasons why many people view alcohol as a non-drug: - Alcohol is legal. - Advertising and media promote drinking as normal. - Large distribution and sales of alcohol. - Long history of alcohol use.
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History of Alcohol (Ethanol) Aztec Babylon Inca India Rome Greece Egypt China
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Fermentation – natural biochemical process through which yeast converts sugar to alcohol Fermentation requires sugar, water, warmth, & yeast spores Yeast metabolically break down sugar creating carbon dioxide, water and ethyl alcohol as waste products Fermentation continues until yeast runs out of sugar or the alcohol concentration reaches toxic level (12-14%) Therefore 12-14% is the natural limit of alcohol found in fermented wines or beers
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Distillation – method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture Distillation process (boiling) increases alcohol concentration up to 50% Still - distillation device, developed around A.D. 800 by the Arabs Around A.D. 1250 still introduced into medieval Europe Before XVII-XVIII century spirits drinking was largely for medicinal purposes
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