lecture_Ch07_2[1]

lecture_Ch07_2[1] - Drugs and Behavior Alcohol (Ethanol)...

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Drugs and Behavior Alcohol (Ethanol) – part II PSY 291
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Negative impact of alcohol 100,000 deaths associated with alcohol each year. More than 2% of night-time drivers have blood alcohol that exceeds legal amounts (0.08%). Nearly 50% of all Americans will be involved in an alcohol-related traffic accident sometime during their lives.
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Driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year among persons aged 16 or older, by age: 2008. Source: SAMHSA. NSDUH Series H-36, DHHS Publication No. SMA 09- 4435.
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Negative impact of alcohol Alcohol causes severe dependence. Disrupts family, social, and professional relationships $176 billion/year for social and health problems
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FIGURE 8.04: Economic costs of alcohol abuse, United States, 1998 (total estimated cost: $184.6 billion). Harwood, H., D. Fountain, and G. Livermore.
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Distribution of the costs of alcohol abuse. Source: Harwood, H., D. Fountain, and G. Livermore. NIH Pub. No. 98-4327.
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Negative impact of alcohol Major organ damage (brain, liver, blood, digestive, cardiovascular, reproductive, endocrine systems, kidneys) Malnutrition due to caloric carbohydrate intake without nutrition (alcohol has more calories/gram than carbohydrates or proteins; only slightly less than fat; alcoholic beverages have no vitamins, minerals, protein, or fat).
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Negative impact of alcohol Mental disorders: - Severe dependence - Wernicke-Korsakoff’s syndrome - Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
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Physical effects of alcohol The body is affected by alcohol in two ways: - Direct contact with mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestine Irritant & anesthetic - Indirect influence on almost every organ system in the body after entering the bloodstream Absorption is the process by which the drug molecules reach the bloodstream
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The effects of alcohol on the human body depend on the amount of alcohol in the blood BAC = Blood Alcohol Concentration Lethal level of alcohol is between 0.4 and 0.6% in blood The lethal level is the same for all, no difference for drinkers. Amount needed for anesthesia very close to toxic so not effective as general anesthetic. Physical effects of alcohol
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BAC depends on … 1. Presence of food in the stomach Q: What types of foods are best at slowing the absorption of alcohol? A: Fatty foods, meat, & milk slow absorption, increase
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lecture_Ch07_2[1] - Drugs and Behavior Alcohol (Ethanol)...

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