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Unformatted text preview: 3/4/2009 "They are in error indeed": Church Reform and Crusades The Church began asserting itself after a period of decline and fragmentation to reunify the faithful and gain independence from secular rulers via: Internal Church Reform & Internal and External Crusades To reform itself, the Church sought to consolidate power by reforming monastic systems and clarifying church law into a single canon law Church, just like secular kings, was consolidating power, standardizing allegiances, and l iti i i authority in ll i d legitimizing th it i the High Middle Ages Church Reform: The Papacy Once independent of secular control, the papacy of the 8th-10th cys had succumbed to secular control in exchange for g military protection, in turn elevating some questionable men to the office Church Reform: Monasticism Benedictine monks had suffered from early medieval invasions and subsequent relationships with lords, resulting in a decline in learning and discipline, and a rise in simony and clerical marriage 1 3/4/2009 Cluniac Reform Duke Wm of Aquitaine founded Cluny in 910 to revitalize Benedictine mon'sm Cluny's influence spread across Western Europe, and consolidated monastic authority-- authority--a prior at each Cluniac house answered to a single abbot Cluny as Reform Model: Benedict's Ideal Independent Charter Limited Privacy Papal Reform: Pope Leo IX Leo targeted abuses in church offices borne of toocozy relationships with secular rulers ~~ Cardinals to advise Cardinals to elect popes
Raphael, Pope Leo X and Two Cardinals, 1518 God's "vicar on earth" A monk made cardinal and elected pope, Gregory VII made papal reform and independence a priority "Freedom of the Church" Gregory's papal goals put him in direct conflict with the German King/HRE Henry IV Simony illegal 2 3/4/2009 Lay Investiture: Vassals or Lackeys?
S C 10751075-1076: Gregory vs. Henry Round I
Gregory forbids clerics from receiving spiritual investiture ~~ Henry ignores, sways election of Milan bishop . . . Mutual threats ~~ Gregory excommunicates Henry
" . . . in the name of Almighty God, Father, Son and Holy Ghost, I withdraw, through your power and authority, from Henry the king, son of Henry the emperor, who has risen against your church with unheard of insolence, the rule over the whole kingdom of the Germans and over Italy. And I absolve all Christians from the bonds of the oath which they have made or shall make to him; and I forbid any one to serve him as king. For it is fitting that he who strives to lessen the honor of thy church should himself lose the honor which belongs to him." --First Deposition and Banning of Henry IV, 1076 Henry relied on church officials as administrative and political vassals As lord invested clerics with lord, Regalia: scepter (temporal) Spiritualia: ring and crozier (spiritual) 1077: Gregory vs. Henry Round II
Nobles and Bishops meet to replace Henry, but . . . Henry goes to pope at Canossa, Italy and begs forgiveness Gregory is the pope--what pope-- choice does he have? Henry in the clear--and starts clear-- investing clerics with regalia and spiritualia 10771077-1080: Gregory vs. Henry Round III Gregory excommunicates Henry Henry marches an army into Italy to depose Gregory Gregory flees into exile and dies 3 3/4/2009 1122: Concord of Worms Pope Calixtus II and HRE Henry V settled investiture issue peaceably
Ex: German Bishop 1) Elected by Church 2) Paid homage to King, invested with regalia 3) Papacy invests with spiritualia So What? Secular appointments of clerics, and clerical dependence on kings, deepened interdependence Reform clerics exerted papal independence and claimed right to depose secular rulers Pope Urban II turned the papacy into a monarchy in its own right, including initiating the Corpus Juris Canonici
This later edition of canon law built on the consolidation begun by Pope Urban II Building the Canon 1140 Gratian's Decretum (A Concord of Discordant Canons) Informal consolidation of church canon Canon law refined and consolidated over next few centuries 4 3/4/2009 Papal Independence to Papal Intervention: Pope Innocent III
France England Germany Spain Portugal ~ Innocent ruled Wn Xndom
Pope Innocent III issued many papal bulls like this one to exert his will over secular rulers and clerics alike Beyond Cluny: Monastic Reforms and Diversification
Eremitic (Ancient, EMA) Cenobitic (EMA, HMA) Benedictine (Monte Cassino, Cluny) Cistercians Franciscans and Poor Clares Dominicans Beguines Monastic Reforms and Diversification: The Cistercians France
Cistercians spread rapidly across Europe, creating hundreds f h d d of houses in a few decades Britain Cistercians' "back to basics" approach to monasticism drew many followers disillusioned by the ease and wealth of many Benedictine houses (like Cluny)
Cistercian monasticism maintained a manual labor requirement but did not rely on peasant labor, by then common in Western monasteries Citeaux Abbey (still active) 5 3/4/2009 Cistercians also found a charismatic leader in Bernard of Clairvaux: Settled papal election Preached for 2nd Crusade Recruited HRE for Crusade Humanized Christ, Mary, and the Saints Monasticism on the Move: The Mobile Mendicants Franciscans Dominicans Created a monastic life for ordinary people outside the cloister Monastic Reforms and Diversification: The Franciscans Francis of Assisi abandoned wealth for poverty, warfare for gentleness His informal order of begging friars became the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans) Franciscans lived in world as missionaries--women missionaries--women as well as men Clare of Assisi followed Francis' example and founded a sister order for f d d i t d f women, the Poor Clares 6 3/4/2009 Simplicity, Success, and Sects Franciscans grew and gained a following that threatened their integrity as a mendicant order Francis allowed for some structure Wealthy donors added buildings Popes allowed friends to hold property Francis' order Monastic Reforms and Diversification: The Dominicans
Dominic de Guzman turned his intellectual abilities into a new monastic order focused on preaching, rather than poverty, to rescue the faithful from the heretical brink Spiritual Franciscans Conventuals Theology schools were at the heart of an elaborate administrative system for the Dominicans MasterMaster-General Monastic Provinces Priors in Councils Legislation for Order Individual Members Monastic Reforms and Diversification: The Beguines Beguines created an informal religious life outside the rigors and legitimacy of recognized monastic orders Harmless or Heretics? 7 3/4/2009 Despite the rising number of female saints, the centrality of the Virgin Mary, and the power of abbesses in the Church, monastic life continued to grow slowly for religious women until the revival of the 12th and 13th cys-- cys--and it remained limited even then Germany was an exception, a haven for female religious like Hildegard of Bingen
In an age when writing and music were male domains, Hildegard wrote 3 books and influenced plainsong-- plainsong--like the Gregorian chant Popular Religion: Lay Piety and Low Clergy HMA Church enmeshed itself in daily life of the faithful 7 Sacraments Baptism, Marriage, Eucharist, Confession/Penance, Last Rites + Holy Orders for clergy (Confirmation uncommon until 13th cy) Popular Religion: Lay Piety and Low Clergy Saints became personal mediators between the faithful and God via the Church 8 3/4/2009 Popular Religion: Lay Piety and Low Clergy Relics (in reliquaries) and pilgrimages to sites like the waters at Lourdes were important aspects of medieval lay piety Purgatory Credits? Medieval Christians began buying indulgences from the Church as a way to lessen their loved ones' time in purgatory Holy Wars: Battling the Infidels Within and Without In the 11th and 12th cys, the Church turned its attention to fending off dangerous "others"-- "others"--not only Muslims in the Holy Land, but heretics at home
Cathar stronghold at Languedoc, France On the eve of the Holy Land Crusades, the Muslim and Byzantine empires came to blows as each pushed to expand 9 3/4/2009 Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Commenus successfully routed Normans from the Adriatic coast and Turks from Anatolia, but it bankrupted his resources . . . So he asked the Western Church for aid to continue fighting the Turks, and Pope Urban II saw a bigger opportunity Pope Urban II calls the First Crusade in 1095, at the Council of Clermont Urban intended that the aristocratic military--trained military-- and outfitted--should fight outfitted-- the Crusade . . . But the fervor reached a penniless zealot named Peter the Hermit first The spontaneous and illill-fated "Peasants Crusade" condemned Jews to persecution by the crusaders and the crusaders themselves to massacre by the Turks 10 3/4/2009 The First Crusade, under Bp. Adhemar of Le Puy, set out for Jerusalem, by way of Constantinople, in 1096 Jerusalem in Christian hands once more, the Crusaders broke their oath to Alexius I and divided the Holy Land into feudal states Monastic Knight? Or Knightly Monk? Two more monastic orders emerged in the wake of the First Crusade--and these were Crusade-- armed
Knights Templar (Knights of the Temple) protected pilgrims to Jerusalem Knights Hospitallers provided medical care for Holy Land pilgrims Two centuries of crusading left the Holy Land strained and thousands of Christians and Muslims dead in their wake 11 3/4/2009 The Third Crusade was marked by an unusual pairing of skilled and honorable warriors--and opponents--who shared a mutual respect: Richard the Lionhearted and Saladin Once Saladin died, Pope Innocent III saw a chance to rekindle the Crusades and to settle a political dispute in Byzantium The Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople in 1204, breaching walls that had held for 1,000 years, shattering the Byzantine empire until its final conquest by the Ottoman Turks in 1453 The crusading spirit flourished again in 1212 with another unofficial and disastrous attempt to save the Holy Land-- Land--the "Children's Crusade" 12 3/4/2009 Church Reform Quiz
1. Put the monastic reformers below in chronological order: ____ Cistercians ____ Cluniac ____ Dominicans 2. Which Pope intervened in political affairs throughout Western Europe? 3. Pope Gregory VII and HRE Henry IV battled over what controversy? Bonus (+1): Name the church office that wrested power from secular kings by taking over papal elections Heresy was as--if as-- not more-- more-- dangerous than Muslim invaders because it could ruin the Church from within The same religious fervor that fueled Crusades to the Holy Land also manifested in internal dissent and outright heresy, and efforts to crush them DIY Reform: Lay Piety meets Crusades AntiAnti-clericalism
Orthodox belief Condemned bps and priests for moral failings Not heresy, but definite challenge to Church authority Cathars Dualism: Good v. Evil God v. Satan Spirit v. Body So, what's the problem? Heresy
Unorthodox beliefs/practices Urban base Flourished in revival fervor of 12th and 13th cys Dominated by Catharism and Waldensianism 13 3/4/2009 Dualism means that Jesus not divine Church evil Cathar practices also violated Church doctrine Strict asceticism No procreation Women in power Waldensians Cathar Castes Parfait (perfects)-- (perfects)-- consolamentum Croyants -- endura Waldensians were condemned as heretics for unauthorized preaching
Waldensians as witches, 15th cy Church Response: Pope Innocent III 1209 Innocent calls crusade against Cathars, launching a French civil war Beziers The Albigenisan Crusade killed 1000s of Cathars and innocent townspeople 14 3/4/2009 Carcassonne Cathars retreated to Montaillou Many Cathars surrendered at Carcassonne, but the refuge was a trap to fortresses like Montsegur, where the Cathars made a last stand in 1244 To combat heresy, the Papacy established the Holy Office-- Office-- the Inquisition--in 1215 Inquisition-- The often bloody battles between heresy and orthodoxy, Islam and Xy, splendor and poverty, Church and State, were all part of a medieval world trying to impose order on chaos and uncertainty Indeed, 1215 was a seminal year for both order and chaos : Magna Carta Dominicans founded Albigensian Crusades Last of Crusades in Holy Land Byzantium weakened and withering Islamic empire thriving and spreading Holy Roman Empire founded Europe and Byzantium, c. 1215 15 3/4/2009 Crusades Quiz
1. The Third Crusade was notable for these two men: ________ and _________. The Fourth Crusade was notable for the sack of this city: _______________ . 2. The ________________ held orthodox beliefs, but preached them without authorization from the Church. 3. 3 Pope Innocent III called a crusade within France against the ______________. 4. Why did the Cathars believe Jesus was not divine? 5. The very first crusade to the Holy Land was led by____. Bonus (+1): The people in #3 had two castes of believers-- believers-- the ________ and the ___________. Bonus (+1): Who called the First Crusade in 1095? 16 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course EUH 2001 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '10 term at Santa Fe College.
- Summer '10