9 HMA Flowering Slides

9 HMA Flowering Slides - 3/4/2009 Commerce, Camelot, and...

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Unformatted text preview: 3/4/2009 Commerce, Camelot, and Cathedrals: High Medieval Flowering GRECO Antique Christian Germanic ROMAN JUDEO CHRISTIAN GRECO Latin/Greek Eremitic Cenobitic Benedictine Cluniac Cistercian Franciscan Dominican Military IMPERIAL Agrarian/Trade Antique Christian Agrarian Germanic ROMAN High Medieval Flowering: Commerce, Camelot, and Cathedrals High Middle Ages = Confidence Holy Land and Heretic Crusades Magna Carta Monastic Diversification Agricultural Innovation Monastic Diversification Agricultural Innovation Urban and Commercial Revolution Literary Revival Architectural Innovation Rise of Universities Faith and Reason in Scholasticism Medicine and Natural Philosophy Western Relics Lay Piety Pilgrimages Monasticism Indulgences Localized Mystics Cathars Kingdoms Feudalism Manorialism Waldensians French/German/ Spanish Sacraments Saints Monarchy Urban Charter Commercial/Agrarian JUDEO CHRISTIAN 1 3/4/2009 "every convenience for human pleasure is known to be at hand" --Wm Fitz--Wm Fitz-Stephen Dinan, France is picturesque today-- today--but at its start in the Middle Ages, it would have been crowded, dirty, and dangerous FURS, FISH, TIMBER Flanders The HMA urban revival resulted in cities scattered across the West EMA burghs 12th cy boroughs of burghers and burgesses later bourgeoisie IVORY, SPICES (Medicines, Perfumes, Etc.) 2 3/4/2009 Commercial Revolution: New Economy Silver coins Salaried officials Hired troops Liquid assets Buy imports Building programs The Moneylender and his Wife Quentin Metsys (1514) Commercial Revolution: New Populations = New Laws and Obligations Wealthier peasants Lesser noble sons Vagabonds Runaway serfs Medieval town life was not separate from medieval farm life: 29 September 1331 "Henceforth no-one shall allow his pigs to wander in, or go along, the streets on any day of the week except Saturday. If a pig is found wandering on any other day, its owner shall pay 4d." Merchant and Artisan Guilds flourished in medieval cities, protecting profits, legal rights, and craftsmanship standards With a charter, medieval cities like Chauvigny, France could Enforce own laws in own courts Collect and use own taxes Regulate own economy The EMA manorial relationship evolved into town charters during the HMA commercial revolution, revolution as scattered villages merged into distinct towns 3 3/4/2009 Charters made towns autonomous, but left their governance to merchants and mastermastercraftsmen Artisans manufactured and sold directly most of the goods in medieval towns Towns gave rise to capitalism dominated by small shops and the "putting"putting-out system" Artisans trained apprentices to become either masters themselves, or to work as journeymen Women continued to participate in medieval town economies, working as alewives, spinners, haberdashers, and even running taverns and hotels High spirits and a booming economy fueled a cultural flowering in Literature Architecture Science Philosophy Learning 4 3/4/2009 The Epic: chansons de geste ("songs of great deeds ) deeds") Beowulf tradition evolved into minstrel song The Lyric: Le Troubadour, purveyor of lyric poetry Blood and thunder gave way to passion and poetry Illuminated manuscript based on the epic Le Mort de Roland The Romance: Courtly love Trojan W T j War Alexander the Great King Arthur The Legendary Camelot: Knights of the Round Table, King Arthur, Lancelot and Guinevere Medieval Romance created Medieval Ideals Lancelot: Love and Purity Galahad: Bravery and Devotion 5 3/4/2009 The Fable: New urban bourgeoisie = satire of aristocratic ideals "There once was a girl from from Nantucket . . ." Fabliaux Wolf in sheep's clothing Fable Dante and the Vernacular: Divine Comedy is in Tuscan vernacular rather than Latin Building the Medieval West: HMA Architecture Chartres Cathedral Chartres CathedralC 6 3/4/2009 MontStMichel Westminster Abbey Reims Cathedral Notre Dame Cathedral Notre Dame Cathedral 7 3/4/2009 Cathedral-inCathedral-in-a-Box? Hardly. Hundreds of millions of dollars Decades-- Decades--sometimes more than a century Local funding and support and artisans Romanesque basilica in Vezelay, France (Bernard of Clairvaux called the Second Crusade here) Gothic Cologne Cathedral, Germany Vezelay Unable to support windows, Romanesque cathedrals carved their stories into their walls Engineering allowed Gothic cathedrals to narrate in ornate stained glass instead Rose Window, Notre Dame Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals alike were immense, and received protection from evil and the elements through gargoyles 8 3/4/2009 St. Sernin Cathedral, Toulouse: Romanesque round arches thick walls eavy sty e heavy style anchored to Earth St Denis Basilica, Paris: Gothic vault ribs slender pillars pointed arches stained glass windows Notre Dame Flying Buttresses allowed cathedral builders to builder higher, thinner, and stronger walls England's 12th cy Lincoln Cathedral is a reminder that the cathedral was the center of medieval life 9 3/4/2009 Canterbury Cathedral HMA Flowering Part I: Economy and Culture Quiz 1. Along with silver coins to pay taxes, name another way that the commercial revolution altered the HMA economy. 2. Merchants and artisans created _____ to protect their rights, standardize prices, and uphold quality. 3. Put these stages of a HMA craftsman's career in order: ____Journeyman _____Apprentice _____Master 4. Name two of the literary forms that flourished in the HMA 5. Name the form of architecture described below: vaulted arches / flying buttresses / stained glass = ____ round arches / heavy pillars / few windows = _____ During the 300 years that it stood, the shrine of St Thomas Becket attracted so many pilgrims, their knees wore smooth the stone floor Bonus (+1): What Paris cathedral is reached via a tidal causeway? The Dark Ages? HMA Flowering: Science and Learning The studium generale flourished in the HMA, uniting liberal arts with the high disciplines 10 3/4/2009 Universite de Paris Part of the Sorbonne's library today This wasn't in the brochure! 5 am classes Straw or benches Wax tablets Hours of lecture (without the pictures) Roots Canon Law Investiture The High Disciplines: Law and Philosophy Roots Greeks Faith Islam + Church Fathers Reason EMA Scholars = Scripture Judaism Scholasticism 11 3/4/2009 St. Anselm 11th cy philosopher / abbot Abp of Canterbury Philosophical Theology argumentum Anselmi argumentum Anselmi Argument for the existence of God: God is "that than which nothing greater can be thought" (God's so magnificent nothing greater can be imagined, so He must exist) The foolologist? However they are depicted, Peter Abelard is seldom thought of without intoning Heloise, as well St. Thomas Aquinas Brilliant and challenging, Aquinas routinely defied expectations professionally and intellectually Benedictine abbot? Benedictine abbot? Dominican friar Academic? Mystic Doubt? Confirmation HMA Science: Medicine Anchored at the Univ. of Salerno, HMA medicine made strides in healing and anatomy 12 3/4/2009 HMA Science: Natural Philosophy "God is a mathematician" --Plato --Plato Revelation unbound by reason ~~ Reason unbound by revelation Franciscans led the charge into natural philosophy Wm of Ockham Robert Grosseteste made Oxford the scientific center of Europe Key to universe was mathematics Pioneer in scientific method HMA Flowering Quiz: Part 2 1. A university began as a studium generale, literally a "__________________." 2. Name two of the major cities in which universities thrived. 3. Name three of the six sources that influenced HMA philosophers. 4. Scholasticism was the philosophical study of the 4 S h l ti i th hil hi l t d f th relationship between _________ and ___________. 5. Which monastic order launched the study of natural philosophy? Bonus (+1): Who said "God is a mathematician"? Bonus (+1): What did St. Bernard call Peter Abelard's philosophy? Soaring Cathedrals Blossoming Science Bustling Towns Vibrant Literature This world won't die--but it's about to be die-- turned upside down 13 ...
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