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Unformatted text preview: 3/31/2009 The Horsemen The Four Horsemen: Late Medieval Apocalypse
Century of Warfare Roman Church Split p Crime and Disease Rampant Fresh Invasions Is this the Fall of Europe? Great Schism Hundred Years War Ottoman Turks Black Death + Little Ice Age Calm before the Storm: The 1300 Jubilee Horseman 1: Church in Crisis Innocent III elevated papal power above secular kings, but his successors struggled to successors struggled to maintain control of both ambitious rulers and devout laity-- devout laity--to keep hold of the devil in many guises Boniface VIII declared 1300 a jubilee year in Rome and invited Western Xndom to celebrate 1 3/31/2009 Lay Piety added mysticism to its challenges to ecclesiastical authority Sacraments useless in personal relationship with God-- God--only Eucharist preserved as a direct preserved as a direct communion with the Holy Spirit
Catherine of Sienna was associated with many miracles, and when she died in Rome at 33, her followers in Sienna brought her head home to mummify as a relic. A cy after her death, she was canonized-- canonized--becoming St Catherine Mysticism found lasting influence through Gerard Groote's Brethren of the Common Life No vows Prayer, poverty, preaching B h Brethren schools h l Intellectual nursery for Renaissance reformers like Erasmus, Luther, and Thomas a Kempis Thomas a Kempis, Imitations of Christ exemplified mysticism Mysticism via Imitations of Christ Direct experience of God Catholic orthodoxy + Protestant precursors Mysticism Heresy: John Wycliffe and Lollards Scriptural authority Christ really in Eucharist? All sacraments useless Vocally critical of ecclesiastical $$
(Spiritual Franciscans named heretics in 13th (Spiritual Franciscans named heretics in 13 cy on same grounds) Thomas a Kempis emphasized individual piety, a marked change from the medieval idea of a Xn commonwealth Friends in high place-- Friends in high place--Wycliffe out of work but died in peace. And the Lollards? 2 3/31/2009 Mysticism Heresy: John Hus and Hussites Anticlericalism a weapon for Czech independence from Germans under HRE Mysticism Heresy: Joan d'Arc Gregory's "freedom of the church" should mean freedom from freedom from the church for secular kings f l ki Hus came to the Council of Constance-- of Constance--and was seized and burned at the stake as a heretic Lay Piety and Mysticism only half of Church crisis-- crisis-- papacy and Western Western Xndom ripped in half by Great Schism 1309 13091376: Avignon Papacy 13761378: Roman Papacy 13761378: Roman Papacy Lay Piety and Mysticism only half of Church crisis-- crisis-- papacy and Western Western Xndom ripped in half by Great Schism 3 3/31/2009 Lay Piety and Mysticism only half of Church crisis-- crisis-- papacy and Western Western Xndom ripped in half by Great Schism 13781409: Avignon and Roman 13781409: Avignon and Roman Papacy Council of Pisa, 1409 Dual papal council to settle on 1 l pope, but which one? How about THREE popes?! Council of Constance, 14151418 Council of Constance, 1415 3 Popes 2 deposed 1 resigned = 1 resigned = Martin V elected by cou ci council Horseman 2: Hundred Years War and Monarchial Crisis Holy Roman Empire created by papal created by papal Golden Bull, 1356 But an empire in name only Pope Martin rejects conciliar authority, papacy discredited 4 3/31/2009 Italy was a cluster of political states and small kingdoms dominated by: Kingdom of Naples Papal States Florence Milan Venice Spain's Reconquista to consolidate land, power, and Catholicism under Ferdinand and Isabella was completed in 1492 and enforced by the Spanish Inquisition HYW in Context 1. England holding land in France (40%) 2. Diplomatic battle over Flanders and contested French throne 3. KnightinShining KnightinShining Armor complex among kings and nobles
Philip VI of Valois vs. King Edward III France and England came to blows on and off for a cy, 13371453, as each struggled to stabilize their cy, 1337 own monarchies and to settle disputes that came over with the Conqueror 5 3/31/2009 HYW in Real Life: English victories at Crecy & Poitiers Peasants Revolt, 1381 and reign of Rd. II stalled war stalled war Henry V whomps French at Agincourt Joan d'Arc reclaims French supremacy HYW and England *Wars of the Roses *Richard III batty __HYW and France *Horrors of War *John the Good political turmoil *Estates General force
dauphin to issue Great Ordinance *Tudor king Henry VII What's in a name?: French Monarchy on the Rise The Jacquerie Rebellion pitted peasants against aristocracy in i t i France, each savagely attacking the other King Charles V was called Le Sage--the Wise-- King Charles V was called Le Sage--the Wise-- but was succeeded by Charles the mad, and eventually Charles VII who won the HYW and finally Louis XI-- finally Louis XI--the Spider King 6 3/31/2009 Horseman (literally) 3: Mongol and Ottoman Invasion Between 1354 and 1453, the Ottoman Empire swept into Europe 1355 1455 Genghis Khan's Mongols so terrorized Russia they severed its development from the rest of Western Europe In 1453, Constantinople fell to Ottoman artillery Horseman 3 : The Little Ice Age 500 Years of Cold, Wet Weather Crop Failures Malnutrition Weakened Bodies Weakened Bodies
Russian famine kills 500,000+ 1315 13151321: crop failures, heavy rainfall 111 famines in France alone Horseman 4: The Black Death 7 3/31/2009 LMA Apocalypse Quiz
1. What were the Four Horsemen of the LMA (excluding the LIA)? 2. How many popes were there at the end of the Council of Pisa? At the end of the Council of Constance? 3. Who battled in the Hundred Years War? What woman helped win that war? 4. What was the name of the peasant rebellion in France after the HYW? f h HYW? 5. Which of these countries was the most consolidated in the LMA: Italy, the Holy Roman Empire, or Spain? Bonus: (+1) Name the two mystics accused of and executed as heretics in the LMA. Bonus (+1) What year did Constantinople fall to the Ottoman Turks? 8 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course EUH 2001 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '10 term at Santa Fe College.
- Summer '10