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Unformatted text preview: 3/31/2009 "What a happy age we live in!": The Renaissance "Renaissance" was, and remains, a matter of perspective "Men can do all things if they will" --Leon --Leon Batista Alberti Building on ancient philosophy, Christian mysticism, and even the horrors of the Black Death, the Renaissance defined-- defined--and was defined by--the individual Petrarch-- Petrarch--"father of humanism" Petrarch defined his own place in time-- time--and gave historians a framework t use f k to for centuries to come-- come--by naming the period between antiquity and his own world medio aevo 1 3/31/2009 Petrarch named the Middle Ages for historians, but historians named his time the Renaissance: 13501350-1400 Early Renaissance
Wn Europe--Italy Europe-- New arts and education ". . .we are born into the condition of being able to become whatever we choose" --G. F. Pico della G. Mirandola 14001400-1500 High Renaissance g
New cultural values Artistic and literary achievement 15001500-1550 Late Renaissance
Political turmoil Northern Renaissance Groundwork for Reformation Renaissance as much a philosophy h hil h about life and humanity as a collection of art A Renaissance courtier was not just any schmuck or sycophant: Philosophy of breeding, manners, appearance, education The key to lasting government lay in understanding and manipulating human nature: a Renaissance prince was better feared than loved, respected than adored Baldasarre Castiglione Niccolo Machiavelli 2 3/31/2009 Civic Humanism Why Italy? Politics: city-states cityEconomics: trade centers Cultural History: heart of Roman Empire
Cosimo de Medici Cicero Petrarch's sense of individual human potential evolved into the role of that potential for the civitas a la Cicero Leonardo Bruni Bruni called this Renaissance citizen The New Cicero Civic humanism in turn fostered the individual via education in classics, Xy, and physical fitness. The desired result? The universal person-- person-- The Renaissance Man Humanism and Human History: Periodization Critical Analysis Human Agency SelfSelf-portrait, Leonardo da Vinci Francesco Guicciardini 3 3/31/2009 Copy of a Gutenberg Bible at Library of Congress Scriptoria to Printing: Moveable metal type replaces wooden blocks and hand-written copies hand- 1500 Venice 100 printers & 200 million volumes 1500 Europe E 1,000 printers & 40,000 titles totaling 8-10 million copies Information Revolution: Impact of Printing Democratized / vulgarized learning More scholarly research Standardized texts Tool for religious reforms Spread of Printing, 1455-1500 1455- 4 3/31/2009 Italy, c. 1450 5 main city-states:
Northern Italy Duchy of Milan (Francesco Sforza) Republic of Venice (merchant republic) Florence (Cosimo d'Medici Lorenzo d'Medici) Central Italy Papal States
Pope Julius II: The Warrior Pope The Renaissance Popes: Art, War, and Scandal Pope Sixtus IV Pope Sixtus IV Pope Alexander VI Renaissance popes also used influence to patronize the arts and support building campaigns Pope Leo X made Rome a Renaissance showplace . . . and raised eyebrows among future Reformation leaders doing so Southern Italy Kingdom of Naples (feudal monarchy) 5 3/31/2009 The "first lady of the world": Isabella d' Este and her court (as classical allegory) The Arrival of the Ambassadors, Vittore Carpaccio Venice was an Italian & European diplomatic center Renaissance Hallmarks Republic? Feudalism? Reality? Cesare Borgia was Machiavelli's real-life realprince: Ruthless, savvy, and secular Individualism-- Individualism--signed work Humanism--neoHumanism--neo-Platonic Rationalism-- Rationalism--realism and science Secularism-- Secularism--more Earth, less Heaven 6 3/31/2009 Renaissance Periods Trecento-- Trecento--1300s MA Ren Giotto, Masaccio Quattrocento-- Quattrocento--1400s Donatello Botticelli Cinquecento-- Cinquecento--1500s Ren Baroque Michelangelo Da Vinci Raphael Giotto, Pieta
1305 Masaccio frescoes in Brancacci Chapel, Florence Considered first real masterpiece of Early Renaissance Masaccio, Masaccio Tribute Money,
14241424-1428 7 3/31/2009 Raphael, School of Athens Botticelli, Primavera Venus, Flora, Three Graces, Cupid, and Mercury Donatello, David 14301430-1432 Goliath's head at his feet, relaxed pose First known life-size, freelifefreestanding bronze nude in European art since antiquity "the Gates of Paradise": Ghiberti, East Doors of Florence Cathedral Baptistry 8 3/31/2009 Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral Raphael, Alba Madonna
Classical Structure + Renaissance R i Humanism + Medieval Theme Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper 3D realism in 2D environment D realism in 2 Attempt to capture human emotion and intentions via gesture and movement 9 3/31/2009 Michelangelo, Last Judgment
back wall of Sistine Chapel Michelangelo, Creation of Adam, Sistine Chapel Michelangelo, Last Judgment with detail (self(self-portrait?) Michelangelo, Pieta Michelangelo, Bound Slave 10 3/31/2009 Bramante, Michelangelo--St. Peter's Basilica, Rome Michelangelo--St. (dome by Giacomo della Porta) Jean Pucelle, Belleville Breviary,
1325 Limbourg Bros., May from Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, 1413-1416 1413- 11 3/31/2009 "empty of saints but charged with the spiritual" Jan van Eyck, Giovanni Andolfini and his Bride Albrecht Durer, Adoration of the Magi Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece
(closed), 1432 Ghent Altarpiece (open) 12 3/31/2009 Renaissance Humanism and the Reformation Italy's civic humanism mirrored Northern Renaissance's Christian humanism Italy revived classical art North revived classical Ch i ti it N th i d l i l Christianity Northern humanism turned individual piety into another civic movement: church reform Matthias Grunewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (closed), c. 1510-1515 1510- 13 ...
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