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Unformatted text preview: 4/17/2009 Erasmus became the symbol of Christian humanism by uniting anticlericalism with antianti-scholasticism What must I do to be saved?: The Reformation The alternative? Nominalism + Classical texts = In Praise of Folly
The result? A moderate precursor to radical reforms Sir / St. Thomas More leveled a critique at his world by creating an imaginary one in Utopia Back in reality, More's choice between religious principle and civic i i l d i i service cost him his life Salvation Anxiety + Printing Press = Reformation A 1521 indulgence 1 4/17/2009 "The more I tried to remedy an uncertain, weak, and troubled conscience with human traditions, the more I daily found it more uncertain, weaker and more troubled" The issue for Luther? God's justice--and how best justice-- to secure it The answer for Luther? Grace, rather than good works, secured slavation Salvation Anxiety for Luther: Three Questions Three Answers Tenets of the Reformation How is a person saved? Tradition: good works via the Church Luther: sola fides Where is Christian authority? Tradition: with the Church Luther: sola scriptura What is the Christian Church? Tradition: union of priesthood and believers Luther: community of believers bound by faith Personal Doubt to Western Reformation: The Indulgence Controversy "some drunken German": the Church reacts to Luther Luther and another theologian debated Luther's theses in St. Thomas Church, Leipzig "By the authority of all the saints, and in mercy towards you, I absolve you from all sins and misdeeds and remit all punishments for ten days." At stake was not only Luther's reputation, but the unity of Christian doctrine and authority 2 4/17/2009 Luther sought allies among varied audiences with Address to the Nobility of the German Nation, On the Freedom of the Christian Man, and The Babylonian Captivity of the Church f th Ch h
The result? Spreading talk of reform and challenge--and challenge-- Luther's excommunication To restore order to Western Xndom, HRE Charles V called the Council of Worms in 1521 "The man who saved the faith"?: Luther and History Luther to Lutheranism--and Beyond Lutheranism-- Lutheranism spread rapidly, aided by woodcuts like these that depicted the pope as the Antichrist-- Antichrist-- and Christ as the true pope Was Luther a radical reformer, or a , troubled believer? Was Luther a democratic spokesman, or a privileged malcontent? Was Luther a principled martyr, or a stubborn debater? 3 4/17/2009 Cracks in the Reformation Egalitarian Heaven and Earth? Inspired by Luther's message, Thomas Muntzer led German peasants in revolt Protestant reformers didn't agree on the degree of radicalism shaping the Reformation Nor did they agree on what implications Luther's message should have beyond church walls Lutheran Protestantism and the Christian West Horrified, Luther retaliated against the peasants and called on German German princes to "stab, smite, and slay" them 1. 7 2 sacraments (Baptism and Eucharist) 2. Transubstantiation (literal body and blood) Consubstantiation (symbolic body and blood) 3. Hierarchical priesthood "Priesthood of all believers" monitored by secular authorities 4. Mass G 4 M German lit liturgy of reading and song f di d 5. Clerical celibacy Protestant ministerial marriage/family 4 4/17/2009 "The Reformation" or The Reformations? European Protestant Diversity Nearby in Switzerland, two major Reformation movements gained steam to permanently diversify the Protestants Zwingli debated his teachings before a Zurich council, creating a split within Switzerland between forest and urban cantons Ulrich Zwingli created his Protestant brand out of the Swiss cantons in which he was raised The Marburg Colloquy failed to unite Zwingli's and Luther's followers, leaving Protestants open to further challenge from Catholics . . . and worse Radical Reformation: The Anabaptists
True Church = voluntary association of believers adult baptism Literal renaissance of early Church Rejected theological speculation (like scholasticism) in favor of simple living (like nominalism) Complete separation of church & state Marburg, Germany today 5 4/17/2009 Really Radical Reformation: Dutch Anabaptists and Melchiorites John of Leiden's millenarians took over Munster and proclaimed it the New Jerusalem After radical Dutch Anabaptist leaders were executed in 1545, the violent Melchiorites evolved Menno Simons led the Dutch Anabaptists back to their pacifist roots, becoming successful and enduring as Mennonites SecondSecond-Generation Reformation: Calvinism Personal conversion, a vibrant religious milieu, and a compelling tenet-- tenet-- predestination l d John predestination led J h d ti ti Calvin to craft the most enduring Protestant reforms Calvinism found an official home in Geneva, where Calvin organized his faith Ecclesiastical Ordinances: 4 offices + Consistory Pastors Teachers Elders Deacons *Oversight *Correction *Penance 6 4/17/2009 Spread of Protestantism through 1560 Luther excommunicated 1521 Luther died 1546 Calvin died 1564 Calvinism spread to become the "it" Protestant faith by the 1550s What must I believe to rule?: Reformation Politics How can we reconcile this exorcism depiction by Goya with Henry VIII? The case of 16-year old 16Nicole Obry is one answer The Reformation: Politics is the New Heresy
Pre-Reformation: Catholic Church Cemented Authority and Dissenters Challenged It Reformation: Protestants Challenged Catholic Supremacy and Cemented Secular Alliances Counter-Reformation: Catholic Church Recaptured Authority and Battled Protestants for Legitimacy 7 4/17/2009 Reformation Politics: The Case of Germany
"I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men, and German to my horse" HRE Charles V: Church and State and Unity in Both HRE caught between French King Francis I and Ki F i d Catholic Pope Clement VII-- VII-- Politics? Faith? Pope Clement VII Francis I Charles V chose both--sacked Rome in 1527 both-- Suleiman the Magnificent was a just leader, but his Ottoman Turks were yet another thorn in the HRE's side as he sought to hold his political and religious empire together--and avoid together-- Constantinople's fate The HRE tried to quash the "Luther problem" with debate at the 1530 Diet of Augsburg, then tried demanding that Lutherans return to Church by April 15, 1531 Luther stayed at Coburg Fortress during the Diet 8 4/17/2009 Protestant Germany prepreempted the HRE's deadline by forming the Schmalkaldic League in February 1531 HRE divided into armed camps: Catholic (grey) vs. Protestant (purple) The Religious Peace of Augsburg validated Protestantism and, as a consequence, formally divided Christendom HRE not to be a unified empire & Christian commonwealth centered on Roman Church not to be King Henry VIII attacked Luther in a Defense of the Seven Sacraments, and dedicated the Defense to Pope Leo X
In return, Pope Leo labeled Henry a "defender of the faith" But Henry's England was fertile soil for Protestantism: Antipapal sentiment Anticlerical sentiment Lollardy i fl L ll d influential i l Xn humanism influential 9 4/17/2009 Henry's letters to Anne Boleyn were quite romantic Henry replaced Woolsey with Th. Cranmer and Th. Cromwell Married to Catherine of Aragon, the mother of his daughter Mary, Henry fell in love--and love-- fathered a child--with child-- Anne Boleyn Then Henry legally married Anne . . . . . . who gave birth to the future Queen Elizabeth I 1534, Act of Supremacy
King of England is "supreme head on earth of the Church of England," fE l d" severing ties with Rome and papacy
Be it enacted by auctorite of this present Parliament that the Kyng our Soveraign Lorde his heires and successours Kynges of the Realme shalbe takyn accepted & reputed the onely supreme hede in erthe of the Churche of England callyd Anglicana Ecclesia Henry was head of the Anglican Church, but a Catholic at heart 1539, Six Articles Act CounterCounter-act Protestant reforms in England Reaffirm tenets of Catholic faith Only affirmed diff O l ffi d different h d of Ch h head f Church Created little unrest among English But Henry was still without a male heir to carry on Tudor line . . . 10 4/17/2009 Dubious charge of adultery Anne Boleyn beheaded Henry chose Wife #4 Anne of Cleves by her portrait, but divorced her after he met her in person Then Henry married the teenaged Catherine Howard, who he had beheaded for (real) adultery Wife #3 Jane Seymour died in childbirth, but gave Henry his male heir, Edward Wife #6 Catherine Parr outlived Henry, who died in 1547 ( a year after Martin Luther) 9 years old and sickly, Edward VI succeeded his robust father to the throne, where he handed the reins to Abp. Cranmer and his Protestant reforms Clergy could marry liturgy-- Protestant liturgy--Book of gy Common Prayer England did react strongly this time to these overt acts in favor of Protestantism When Henry's daughter Mary, the wife of future King Phillip II of Spain and daughter-indaughter-in-law of HRE Charles V, ascended to the throne, she brought devout Catholicism with her Her devotion turned to violence against hundreds of Protestants, earning her the grim nickname "Bloody Mary" and making England more Protestant than before 11 4/17/2009 Idle Hands . . . The Catholic Church was not wasting time wringing its hands while Protestantism marched across much of Europe Catholic/CounterCatholic/Counter-Reformation in full swing by start of 16th century New/reformed monastic orders = mission N / f d ti d i i Revived papacy = leadership Council of Trent = unity Existing orders like the Franciscans revitalized with offshoots-- offshoots--the Capuchins New order--same strengths order-- Poverty and example Direct preaching New orders focused on mystic service, clerical reform, and interactive piety: oCarmelite nuns (St. Teresa of Avila) oTheatines, 1524 oUrsulines, 1535
Ecstasy of St. Teresa, Bernini Ignatius of Loyola founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1549 to galvanize, unify, and spread Catholic faith In his "conflict for God," Loyola emphasized h i d utter obedience, strict hierarchy, discipline, and education The Papacy, too, was generating reforms to reinvigorate Catholicism and the Church Pope Paul III's Reform Commission and his recognition of the Jesuits launched a retrenched and rededicated papacy 12 4/17/2009 15451545-1563, Council of Trent Pope Paul IV was the first of the true Counter-Reformation Popes CounterHis take-no-prisoners approach take-notoward Protestants and wayward Catholics created: Doctrinal i D i l inquisition iii Index of Forbidden Books Rome and Papacy a fortress for Catholicism
Pope: focus on doctrine Moderates: craft compromise HRE: tackle reform Conservatives: oppose Protestantism Council of Trent: The New Council of Nicea Scripture and Tradition = Authority Faith and Good Works = Salvation Clerical Celibacy Transubstantiation Purgatory Confirmed Indulgences Effective Distinct Roman Catholic doctrine Clear organizational structure 400 years until next big overhaul 13 4/17/2009 So What? Divided, Devout, and Militant PostPost-Reformation West open for battle among Protestants d P t t t and between Protestants and Catholics ... Age of Religious Wars at Hand 14 ...
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- Summer '10