Manorialism - 2/26/2009 2/26/2009 GRECO ROMAN Antique...

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Unformatted text preview: 2/26/2009 2/26/2009 GRECO ROMAN Antique Christian Germanic Western Lay Piety Monasticism Monasticism Localized Kingdoms Vassalage (Feudalism) JUDEO Manorialism Empires are made of two things: people and land. Beneath the glamour and drama of imperial expansion, contestation, and decline were the daily lives of thousands of people. These are people who left behind few traditional sources, no fancy decrees or law codes, and little in the way of architectural brilliance. But the relationship between people and the land was the foundation of the Western world for millennia. CHRISTIAN By 1000, 90% of medieval medieval Europeans Europeans worked the the land A manor was an agricultural estate, operated by lord operated by a lord and and worked by peasants. The system that bound them together was manorialism, a pact based on mutual need and regulated by mutual obligation 14th cy illustration of a reeve overseeing serfs at work, perhaps on lord’s demesne Through the 7th cy, slave/serf labor declined in medieval Europe for economic and ethical reasons, but then grew again as free peasants exchanged their freedom for security 1 2/26/2009 2/26/2009 Manorialism 101: Labor Vulnerable to invasion and the weather, free peasants turned to serfdom By the 9th cy, 60% of western Europeans were serfs Demesne: the lord’s landholdings usually next to manor house, worked by serfs Weekwork: the 3 days/week a serf required to work the demesne Principalia: household goods “paid” to serfs for their labor Manorialism 101: Rent Panage: tax serfs paid to use the manor’s commons Commons: pasture, streams, ponds, woods for use by everyone on the manor Tax‐in‐kind: part of catch, harvest, etc. to lord in exchange for using commons Lifeways taxes: merchet: off‐manor marriage merchet: legerwite: extramarital sex (men) legerwite: childwite: illegitimate children childwite: Heriot: death (to clear debts) Heriot: Manorialism 101: Law Serfs bound to land Serfs Marry upon Marry approval Lord controls Lord manorial court Lord can monopolize services (ex. mill fee) Bailiff/steward acted Bailiff/steward for lord Tithe: 10% of harvest to village church 2 2/26/2009 2/26/2009 Aristotle devised a “Great Chain of Being” and medieval Europeans adhered to its premise: all living things have a distinct place somewhere between Heaven and Hell MANOR: Village and Manor An example of a manor, with its field system, commons, village, manor house, woodlands and wastes, mills and water ways 1579 depiction of Aristotle’s GCB Restormel Castle, England A Norman manor house, 13th cy A stone manor house, castle, or parish church often served as the nucleus of a new village Most medieval peasant homes were designed to be temporary; the picturesque cottages we imagine were a late innovation for medieval Europeans (this reconstructed cottage is a 13th cy design) Carron Church, Ireland 3 2/26/2009 2/26/2009 Peasants and Land All land tilled in common, but ownership varied Woodland: fields separated by trees (usually peasant‐ owned) Peasant world focused on the toft and croft Toft: Land the house sits on, headed by husband Croft: Surrounding area for animals, housework, wells, latrines, play, etc. Champion: fields connected (“open field”) Glebland: lands held by the Church Champion / Open Field patterns prevailed Peasants used every part of a manor: •Rows 22 yds long •Irregular shape •4 strips/day (furlong) (furlong) •Gardens for fruit and veggies •Pasture for grazing draft animals and sheep “turf stealing” common Meadows for hay in winter •Woods for fuel, pigs, fish 4 2/26/2009 2/26/2009 Passing the Reins: Medieval Manorial Inheritance Primogeniture: oldest son inherits all Ultimogeniture: youngest child inherits all (oldest already established) Partible: heirs divide inheritance Peasants used communal mills to grind grains, ovens to bake bread Fallow (rest) Spring and Fall Summer Three‐field System three‐year cultivation cycle •one field lies fallow for a year •other two planted, alternately, in spring, summer, and fall crops (rye, legumes, oats, barley, lentils, and peas) 10th‐14th Century: Agrarian Europe Changing 11th‐12th cy: population and land clearance •Peasants and lords benefit 13th cy: Population rising faster than ag changes •Peasants facing pressure increased land under cultivation more food more Population up bigger market for ag surplus bigger more cash in economy peasants produce as more peasants much surplus as possible 5 2/26/2009 2/26/2009 Much of the ancient world could use the simplest possible plough to farm dry, crumbly soil: a digging stick pulled by an oxen or two In the fertile but heavy soil of the north, however, a heavier plough was necessary: a mould‐board plough, with an iron plough‐share, that required 4 oxen and 2 people The heavy‐wheeled plough offered better traction, faster cultivation, and greater production with less labor Scotch Highland Oxen primary draft animal before the 8th century 6 2/26/2009 2/26/2009 Horses as Draft Animals A Horse is a Horse . . . Horse collar New Implements (Iron) + New Draft Animals (Horses) + Three‐Field System = 3 annual harvests (not one) Oats More and better variety of food Horseshoes Surplus food to feed villages, manors, and armies Feudal world of vassals and knights made possible Manor Life: Danger! Manor Life: Famine! 7 2/26/2009 2/26/2009 Manor Life: Routine! Eat your veggies! (and protein and iron) Medieval Europeans ate better (3‐Field System) . . . And lived longer . . . Until women outnumbered men Manorialism Quiz 1. Define the tax: Childwite was a tax on _______________________ Heriot was a tax on __________________________ 2. One innovation in medieval agriculture expanded the number of fields in cultivation from 2 to ______ 3. Name one of the innovations that allowed medieval peasants to use horses as draft animals: __________________________ Bonus Questions (1 point each): A. Name the tax peasants had to pay, usually in kind, to use the commons. B. How long was the typical strip in a field under cultivation? C. What fish did medieval peasants commonly eat? 8 ...
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