Chapter14

Chapter14 - Chapter Outline: Polymer Structures Hydrocarbon...

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1 MSE 2090: Introduction to Materials Science Chapter 14, Polymer Structures Chapter Outline: Polymer Structures ¾ Hydrocarbon and polymer molecules ¾ Chemistry of polymer molecules ¾ Molecular weight and shape ¾ Molecular structure and configurations ¾ Thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers ¾ Copolymers ¾ Polymer crystals and degree of crystallinity ¾ Defects and diffusion in polymers Optional reading: none Chaperone/structural protein by Choudhury et al.
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2 MSE 2090: Introduction to Materials Science Chapter 14, Polymer Structures ¾ Polymers – materials consisting of polymer molecules that consist of repeated chemical units (`mers') joined together, like beads on a string. Some polymer molecules contain hundreds or thousands of monomers and are often called macromolecules . ¾ Polymers may be natural , such as leather, rubber, cellulose or DNA, or synthetic , such as nylon or polyethylene. Polymers: Introduction Many of important current research problems and technological applications involve polymers. Living organisms are mainly composed of polymerized amino acids (proteins) nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), and other biopolymers . The most powerful computers - our brains - are mostly just a complex polymer material soaking in salty water. We are just making first small steps towards understanding of biological systems. Silk fiber is produced by silk worms in a cocoon, to protect the silkworm while it metamorphoses in a moth.
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3 MSE 2090: Introduction to Materials Science Chapter 14, Polymer Structures ¾ Most polymers are organic in their origin and are formed from hydrocarbon molecules ¾ Each C atom has four e - that participate in bonds, each H atom has one bonding e - Hydrocarbon molecules (I) Methane, CH 4 Propane, C 3 H 8 Ethane, C 2 H 6 Examples of saturated (all bonds are single ones) hydrocarbon molecules:
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4 MSE 2090: Introduction to Materials Science Chapter 14, Polymer Structures Double and triple bonds can exist between C atoms (sharing of two or three electron pairs). Molecules with double and triple bonds are called unsaturated. Unsaturated molecules are more reactive Hydrocarbon molecules (II) Ethylene, C 2 H 4 Acetylene, C 2 H 2 H-C C-H Isomers are molecules that have the same composition (contain the same atoms) but have different atomic arrangement. An example is butane and isobutane: Butane C 4 H 10 Isobutane physical properties (e.g. boiling temperature) depend on the isomeric state
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5 MSE 2090: Introduction to Materials Science Chapter 14, Polymer Structures Many other organic groups can be involved in polymer molecules. In table below R represent a radical , an organic group of atoms that remains as a unit and maintains their identity during chemical reactions (e.g. CH 3 , C 2 H 5 , C 6 H 5 ) Hydrocarbon molecules (III)
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6 MSE 2090: Introduction to Materials Science Chapter 14, Polymer Structures Polymer molecules ¾ Polymer molecules can be very large ( macromolecules ) ¾ Most polymers consist of long and flexible chains with a string of C atoms as a backbone ¾ Side-bonding of C atoms to H atoms or radicals ¾
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Chapter14 - Chapter Outline: Polymer Structures Hydrocarbon...

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