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Movement and its central control movement neural

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Unformatted text preview: : Descending Modulatory Systems Modulatory Local Spinal Cord and Brainstem Circuits Basal Ganglia Basal Cerebellum Descending Modulatory Pathways Modulatory Pathways (Upper Motor Neurons) The cell bodies for these pathways lie in the brainstem or cerebral cortex and descend to synapse with the local circuit neurons or, more circuit or, rarely, with lower motor neurons directly. Descending Modulatory Pathways Modulatory Pathways (Upper Motor Neurons) Motor cortex pathways Motor pathways descending from areas such as the primary motor cortex, the primary motor the lateral premotor cortex, and the premotor cortex medial premotor cortex, are premotor cort are required for the planning, initiation and direction of temporal sequences of voluntary movement. Brainstem pathways are are Brainstem responsible for regulating for regulating muscle tone and for orienting the tone orienting the eyes, head and body with respect to vestibular, somatic, estibular, auditory and visual sensory information. Local Spinal Cord and Brainstem Circuits Local Lower motor neurons send their axons out of the brainstem to innervate muscles of the head and neck and to of and innervate muscles of the body. muscles Local circuit neurons receive sensory inputs as well as sensory as descending projections from higher centers and provide the higher and coordination between different muscle groups essential for muscle essential organized movement organized they are the major source of synaptic input to the lower motor neurons. Local Spinal Cord and Brainstem Circuits Local Cerebellum Cerebellum Cerebellum detects motor error which detects motor error which are differences between an are differences between an iintended movement and the ntended movement and the movement actually movement actually performed, and provides performed, and provides iinput to upper motor nput to upper motor neurons. neurons. Basal Ganglia Basal Ganglia suppress unwanted suppress unwanted movement and primes upper movement and primes upper motor neuron circuits for motor neuron circuits for m...
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