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Unformatted text preview: In such a complicated system, it is apparent that small
disturbances can throw the whole system out of whack,
often in unpredictable ways.
The deficits tend to fall into one of two categories:
the presence of extraneous unwanted movements
or an absence or difficulty with intended movements. Lesions of the Basal Ganglia
Lesions Parkinson's disease,
results from the slow and steady loss of dopaminergic
neurons in Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc).
The three symptoms usually associated with
Parkinson's are tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia.
tremor rigidity and bradykinesia
The tremor is most apparent at rest.
Rigidity is a result of simultaneous contraction of flexors
and extensors, which tends to lock up the limbs.
Bradykinesia, or "slow movement", is a difficulty
initiating voluntary movement, as though the brake
cannot be released. Amygdaloid nucleus
Amygdaloid at the tail end of the
involved with reactions
to reward and
raising your head.
Consists of the Thalamus,
Makes up 80% of the
Two large gray masses
connected by the
Contains many nuclei
Projects fibers to and
from the cortex
Sorts and edits info.
headed for the cortex intermediate
Directs info. to proper mass of
thalamus thalamus The Diencephalon
emotions (linked to
the limbic system)
Regulates thirst, food
intake, body temp.,
pleasant and painful
centers in the brain
stem controlling B.P.,
respiration The Diencephalon
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- Spring '06