chapter_2 - 1 Anatomical Directions a Rostral(Anterior...

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1. Anatomical Directions a. Rostral: (Anterior) structures that are located towards the head of the animal. b. Caudal: (Posterior) structures located toward the tail end of the animal. (ex: the dogs ears are caudal to its nose and its hips are caudal to its shoulders.) c. Dorsal: (superior) structures toward the back. (dorsal shark fin cutting through the water.) d. Ventral: (inferior) structures located toward the belly side. Neuraxis: an imaginary line that runs the length of the spinal cord through the brain. Midline: an imaginary line that divides us into approximately equal halves. Ipsilateral: two structures are on the same side of the midline. (my left arm and left leg) Contralateral: two structures close to the midline. (my right arm and left leg). Medial: Structures close to the midline. Lateral: structures to the side of the midline. (ex: my heart is medial to my arm, whereas my ears are lateral to my nose.) 2. Planes of Section a. Coronal: Divide the nervous system front to back. (half) b. Sagittal: Divide the brain parallel to the midline. (middle) c. Horizontal: (axial) divides from top to bottom. (straight through) 3. The Meninges Meninges: layers of membranes that surround the nervous system. a. Meningitis: When the meninges become infected. When tumors arise in the tissue of the meninges, they are referred to as meningiomas. Dura Mater: the outermost layer Leather like tissue that follows the outlines of the skull bones. Arachnoid Layer: more delicate layer. Subarachnoid space: Contains cerebrospinal fluid Pia Mater: transparent membrane sticks closely to the outside of the brain. 4. Cerebrospinal Fluid: (CSF) secreted within the ventricles. Floats the brain within the skill. Advantages of this are: fluid acts as a cushion to soften the blow Fluid prevents neurons from responding to pressure and providing false information. Circulates through the central canal of the spinal cord and four ventricles in the brain: two lateral ventricles, on in each hemisphere and a third and fourth ventricle in the brainstem. Turns over three times a day. The old CSF is reabsorbed into the blood supply at the top of the head. CFS moves through a completely self-contained and separate circulation system that never has direct contact with the blood supply. Spinal taps uses the CSF to diagnose diseases. Hydrocephalus: blockages that occur in the narrow section of the circulations system. Water in the brain. Refers to Limbs: Proximal: close to the center. Distal: far away from the center Ex: my toes are distal to my knee.
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a. The Ventricles: hollow spaces in the brain Choroid plexus: converts material from nearby blood supply into cerebrospinal fluid. 5. The Brain’s Blood Supply Carotid arteries: brain receives its nutrients. Located on either side of the neck. Vertebral arteries: travel up through the back of the skull.
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chapter_2 - 1 Anatomical Directions a Rostral(Anterior...

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