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Cells Part I - Prokaryotic bacteria (aregionofcoiled DNA...

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Two Basic Types of Cells • Prokaryotic­ bacteria – larger than eukaryotic cells – lacks a nucleus but has a nucleiod (a region of coiled DNA) • DNA is in direct contact with rest of cells contents – Cell wall­ a rigid complex structure that protects the cell and helps to maintain its shape – Some have a sticky outer coat called a capsule that further protects the cell and helps to adhere the cell to surfaces – Some have projections • Pili­ short projections that aid in adhesion • flagella­ used to propel through the liquid environment • Eukaryotic­ all other forms of life
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Bacteria
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Human Cell
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Plant Cell
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Natural Laws Limit Cell Size
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Generalized Cell Three parts • Plasma (cell) membrane­ the limiting membrane that separates the outer from the internal cell environment • Cytoplasm­ all the cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus – cytosol­ the thick semifluid portion of the cytoplasm • Organelles­ the highly organized structures in the cytoplasm that are specialized for particular functions.
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Organelles • Membranous organelles­ surrounded by one or two layers of unit membrane – Nucleus – Mitochondria – Lysosomes – Peroxisomes – Endoplasmic reticulum – Golgi complex • Non membranous organelles­ not membrane bound – Ribosome – Centrosome – Centrioles – Basal bodies
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Organelles Provides separate chemical environments for the various specialized reactions of the cell
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Nucleus largest structure in the cell called the control center because it contains the genetic material – chromatin­ loosely dispersed DNA associated with protein – chromosomes­ condensed DNA strands
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Karyotype
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Nucleus (cont.) – nuclear contents bound by a membranous sac called a nuclear envelope (double layered membrane) – studded with ribosomes­ place of protein synthesis – nuclear pores­ provide communication with cytoplasm – continuous with endoplasmic reticulum – contains nucleolus­ unenclosed area composed of protein, DNA, where ribosomes are manufactured
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Endoplasmic Reticulum a system of membranous flattened sacs (cisterns) dispersed throughout the cytoplasm Two types­ Rough and smooth – Rough endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes on the outer surface makes more membrane and processes secretory proteins manufactured by the ribosomes membrane continuous with the nuclear envelope
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Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum – network of interconnected tubes void of ribosomes – continuous with rough ER – site of fatty acid, phospholipid, and steroid synthesis in certain cells the enzymes within the smooth ER inactivates or detoxifies various chemicals (i.e., alcohol, pesticides, carcinogens)
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Ribosome Small granules composed of ribosomal RNA and protein sites of protein synthesis are scattered throughout the cytoplasm and attached to ER composed of 2 subunits
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Golgi Complex a system of stacked flattened sacs (cisterns) with expanded
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