IntegumentarySystem - Integumentary System includes the...

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Integumentary System includes the skin and its accessory organs, such as hair, nails, glands, and the various specialized receptors. The largest organ in the body. . has a area of about 22 square feet Epidermis is replaced every 15-30 days Dermatology is the medical subspecialty that deals with skin disorders. Integumentary System (cont) Consist of two principal parts epidermis- the outer thinner portion composed of the epithelium dermis- the inner thicker portion composed of connective tissue to which the epidermis is attached. Subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)- the layer beneath the dermis which attaches the dermis the underlying structures. It consist of adipose tissue and areolar connective tissue. Integumentary System Functions temperature regulation sweat evaporation when hot vascular constriction when cold Protection provides barrier from microorganisms, dehydration, and UV radiation Sensation has abundant nerve endings that sense for pain, touch, temperature Excretion waste products are excreted, i.e., water, salts, and other organic compounds Immunity Langerhans cells are important in body immunity Vitamin D synthesis exposure to UV light helps with the production of vitamin D (aids in the obsorption of calcium and phosphorus from the digestive system). Integumentary System (cont.) Epidermis composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium contains four types of cells Keratinocyte- the main cell of the epidermis are derived from the basal layer and are pushed up to the surface as the cells move upward they simultaneously accumulate keratin along with cell death in the process that takes two to four weeks, these cells are fluffed off and new cells take their place.
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Melanocytes- cells located mostly in the epidermis that produces melanin (a pigment responsible for skin color and the absorption of UV light. Langerhans cells- functions in immune responses and are easily damaged by UV radiation Merkel cell- located in the epidermis of hairless skin and are thought to function in the sensation of touch Integumentary System Epidermis (cont.) has four layers in most parts of the body where skin is thicker due to exposure to friction, five layers may be seen callus- abnormal thickening of the skin Integumentary System Five Layers Stratum basale- single layer of cuboidal to columnar cells capable of continued cell division. the cells multiply to produce keratinocytes contains melanocytes and merkel cells Stratum Spinosum- has about ten rows of polyhedral shaped keratinocytes with spine like projections. can have melanocytes here Stratum Granulosum- about five layer of cells with darkly stained granules. Stratum Lucidum- consist of about five layers of clear flat dead cells. Only the
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course AMY 2A taught by Professor Jamesivey during the Spring '06 term at Riverside Community College.

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IntegumentarySystem - Integumentary System includes the...

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